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8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

Erikson’s Theory of Psycho-social Development identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual should pass through from birth to death. At each stages we encounter different needs, ask new questions and meet people who influence our behaviour and learning. Stage 1 “Basic Trust vs. Mistrust” #Infancy (1-2 years) As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world and we wonder if it’s safe. We learn that if we can trust someone now, we can also trust others in the future. If we experience fear, we develop doubt and mistrust. The key to our development is our mother. Stage 2 “Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt” #Early childhood (2-4 years) In our early childhood, we experience ourselves and discover our body. We ask: is it okay to be me? If we are allowed to discover ourselves, then we develop self-confidence. If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt. Both parents now play a major role. Stage 3 “Initiative vs. Guilt” #Preschool Age (4-5 years) In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things, and learn basic principles like how round things roll. We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do? If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests. If we are held back or told that what we do is silly, we can develop guilt. We are now learning from the entire family. Stage 4 “Industry vs. Inferiority” #School Age (5-12 years) Now we discover our own interests and realize that we are different from others. We want to show that we can do things right. We ask if we can make it in this world? If we receive recognition from our teachers or peers we become industrious, which is another word for hard-working. If we get too much negative feedback, we start to feel inferior and lose motivation. Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most. Stage 5 “Identity vs. Role Confusion” #Adolescence (13–19 years) During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles. We are friends, students, children and citizens. Many experience an identity crises. If our parents now allow us to go out and explore, we can find identity. If they push us to conform to their views, we can face role confusion and feel lost. Key to our learning are our peers and role models. Stage 6 “Intimacy vs. Isolation” #Early Adulthood (20-40 years) As young adults we slowly understand who we are and we start to let go of the relationships we had built earlier in order to fit in. We ask ourselves if we can love? If we can make a long-term commitment, we are confident and happy. If we cannot form intimate relationships, we might end up feeling isolated and lonely. Our friends and partners are now center to our development. Stage 7 “Generativity vs. Stagnation” #Adulthood (40-65) When we reach our forties we become comfortable, use our leisure time creatively and maybe begin contributing to society. Our concern is Generativity. If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world, we are happy. If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier, we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation. People at home and at work are now who influence us most. Stage 8 “Ego Integrity vs. Despair” #Maturity (65-death) As we grow older we tend to slow down and begin to look back over our lives. We ask: how have I done? If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity. If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter. Time to compare us with mankind. Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist who together with his wife Joan, became known for his work on psychosocial development. He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud and became famous for coining the phrase
“Identity crisis.” Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor’s degree, he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale. This video was made for us by who were doing everything to make awesome videos affordable. So if you want to make your own video, please check out their website. If you tell them you came from Sprouts, they’ll give you a 10% discount and they’ll donate 50$ for our next video which would really help our channel. If you work in a company, why not use them for internal training. If you’re a teacher or school, you can make your own lessons. Just go to and order your video for as little as $600 . Thank you for watching 🙂

100 comments on “8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

  1. i went through all these stages in the womb. right now im dealing with the hollow universe vs conscious creation stage

  2. this was powerful indeed I enjoyed listening because everything was clear and well explained now l can do my assignment getting facts from my head.

  3. Im using this to create a character called Pugnare Mihi. He lived with his abusive mother until he turned 5 at which age she left him. He then was at an orphanage recieving little to no attention and so he had to try get attention. While chopping wood to show how 'strong' he was (he was not strong, he was malnourished and weak from lack of sleep in trade for excercise) while chopping wood he chopped his own arm off because he tried to do it with one hand. When he was 8 he left the orphange and just 10 minutes later another 8 year old boy looking for a brother ran into him and asked him "DO YOU WANNA BE MY BROTHER?!" Pugnare of course agreed and since then they've been inseparable. Though he is incredibly messed up as a result of his past. He is mistrusting, doubts himself, feels guilty for almost everything he does and feels inferior to others. He outlets all of these feelings by proving himself. He fights as many people as he can, constantly wanting to prove himself to his brother who already thinks so highly of him. Despite his past he tries to stay positive and has even met his abusive mother and gotten her help for her problems. He has learning issues and is several years behind because of his lack of education but he tries his best. He has a robotic arm and can read at the level of a 6 year old. He learnt that in just 3 years. This video helped me to create him realistically and bring him to life!

  4. I'm forty and am stuck on an early stage. This is do to a controlling and emotionally abusive childhood. How do I overcome it? I think I will be dying by suicide when I get older yet.

  5. stage 4 . so this if this is known then the education system is DELIBERATELY set up to instil feelings of inferiority in the less academic kids . do any of you understand just how evil that is ?

  6. I see none of the comments are from people intelligent enough to see this is capitalist indoctrination AND a method of turning good people into criminals so the establishment has a "villan" to subjugate . disgusting ! and will lead to the apocalypse .

  7. The late end of this seems a little slanted. This is where I encountered problems in my development though (am I then a self-defeating thinker).

  8. I am so glad that I watch this video! It was very informative and I was able to pay attention and listen! This was very helpful.

  9. Great artist, and I am sure that the information is well-covered, but the music in the background – the mindless, endlessly repetitive whistling of a simplistic melody – ruined it. Drove me so crazy I couldn't watch the video. Shame, really.

  10. Had i seen this before my exam, my answers would have been much better.? Anyway, thank you for the short and elucidating explanation. It is really helpful.

  11. This video is FULL OF IT!!!! NEVER ONCE mentioned "Christianity"!!!! Then again, your "Hero" is FREUD!!!! Enough said!

  12. The background music had a negative psychological impact. Who comes up with that shit? It sounds like an attempt at gearing this to younger people and making it sound harmless and dogmatic while it is only one perspective on the process of psychological development…


  14. Well I just fell in love with this channel ??✨ all my favourite topics so beautifully illustrated thank youuu????✨

  15. It is an interesting video and a good refresher of Erickson. It is interesting how heteronormative this is though. A child may not have a specific parent figure, or have only one parent, or have same-sex parents. There are multiple social constructs through each individual's life. How does this model work in these examples. People can develop positively in these situations.

  16. So you're saying if I have a son who's weird and I don't approve of his behavior, he'll become a communist?

  17. I used to like Erickson, but then I experienced my life, and I found that his theories left a lot lacking in terms of maturation rates and the individual's experience with random events which may be detrimental to his physical and or emotional competency. It's not enough to say people will just mature in a general straight-forward way. That's fine for a society at its crest or in times of slow advancement or decline, but it hardly holds true in a society changing so rapidly technologically and culturally as our is today. That aside, certainly an individual's ability to mature at a young age is independent of the date on his birth certificate. Erickson never addresses as far as I know what is to be done with the individual child who is left to experience important situations on his own while his parents are unable to perceive that the child is not advancing in an emotionally cogent pattern, particularly in an environment which has fervent interaction as opposed to the parochial, pastoral settings within which Erickson appears to place the serene development of a child. This may be the setting for a particular few, but it is far removed from the vast experience of most individuals born in the last 50 years. Sardonic inferences aside, are we to assume no one has grown up sane since the late 60's? This is hardly the case.

  18. Use this mnenomic:

  19. This vid is really nicely animated but the massive assumptions of what goes on inside the heads of infants is quite strange. People stop being people when you abstract them away like this.

  20. Why did you let this video depict Che Guevara (depicted on teenagers wall)? He's not a healthy symbol of rebellion. That fellow was a mass rapist and mass murder. You could say that he was a little Hitler.

  21. I'm sorry but spreading it out over the course of life like this is just plain madness.
    The basis of this idea is quite unclear as well. It isn't supported by jungian analytical psychology or freudian psychoanalysis yet it still talks for unconsciousness in a pretty subtle manner.
    This could simply be categorised as philosophical or psychic not scientific.

  22. I mostly identify with the latter result in each stage. I was waiting for "regret" to show up, but I suppose "despair" fills that role well enough.

  23. I am so tired of reading so I went to youtube for help. I have exams later on my major subject, the developmental psychology. Thank you, it helps a lot ?✊

  24. Question: what had become for those whom suffer from inferiority in stage 4? are they the one who commit suicide / school shooting if from US?

  25. Yooo, I didn't get any of what I needed thru age 19 and that's what tainted the rest of my growth until I picked myself up and got myself together starting at age 27.

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