Modernization Hub

Modernization and Improvement
Los Angeles International Airport | Wikipedia audio article

Los Angeles International Airport | Wikipedia audio article

Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX,
ICAO: KLAX, FAA LID: LAX) is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California. The airport is most often referred to by its
IATA airport code (and FAA LID) LAX, with the letters pronounced individually. LAX is located south of the Westchester district
of the City of Los Angeles, California, 18 miles (30 km) southwest of Downtown Los Angeles,
between the district of Westchester to its immediate north, the city of El Segundo to
its immediate south and the city of Inglewood to its immediate east. It is owned and operated by Los Angeles World
Airports (LAWA), an agency of the government of Los Angeles, formerly known as the Department
of Airports. Covering 3,500 acres (1,416 ha) of land, LAX
is also notable for its four parallel runways.In 2017, LAX handled 84,557,968 passengers, making
it the world’s fifth busiest and the United States’ second busiest airport following Hartsfield-Jackson
Atlanta International Airport. As the largest and busiest international airport
on the U.S. West Coast, LAX is a major international gateway to the United States, and also serves
a connection point for some passengers traveling internationally. The airport holds the record for the world’s
busiest origin and destination airport, since relative to other airports, many more travelers
begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection. It is also the only airport to rank among
the top five U.S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic.LAX serves as a hub or focus
city for more passenger airlines than any other airport in the United States. It is the only airport that four U.S. legacy
carriers (Alaska, American, Delta, and United) have designated as a hub and is a focus city
for Air New Zealand, Allegiant Air, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Qantas, Southwest Airlines, Spirit
Airlines, and Volaris. While LAX is the busiest airport in the Greater
Los Angeles Area, several other airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John
Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, and Ontario International Airport, also serve the area.==History==In 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected
640 acres (1.00 sq mi; 260 ha) in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport. The fields of wheat, barley and lima beans
were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings. It was named Mines Field for William W. Mines,
the real estate agent who arranged the deal. The first structure, Hangar No. 1, was erected
in 1929 and is in the National Register of Historic Places. Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles
in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937. The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941
and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949. In the 1930s the main airline airports were
Burbank Airport (then known as Union Air Terminal, and later Lockheed) in Burbank and the Grand
Central Airport in Glendale. (In 1940 the airlines were all at Burbank
except for Mexicana’s three departures a week from Glendale; in late 1946 most airline flights
moved to LAX, but Burbank always retained a few.)Mines Field did not extend west of
Sepulveda Boulevard; Sepulveda was rerouted circa 1950 to loop around the west ends of
the extended east–west runways (now runways 25L and 25R), which by November 1950 were
6,000 feet (1,800 m) long. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda
Boulevard to revert to straight and pass beneath the two runways; it was the first tunnel of
its kind. For the next few years the two runways were
8,500 feet (2,600 m) long.===The “X” in LAX===
Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the weather
stations at the airports. At that time, “LA” served as the designation
for Los Angeles Airport. But with the rapid growth in the aviation
industry the designations expanded to three letters c. 1947, and “LA” became “LAX.” The letter “X” has no specific meaning in
this identifier (just like the X in DXB – Dubai). “LAX” is also used for the Port of Los Angeles
in San Pedro and by Amtrak for Union Station in downtown Los Angeles.==Aircraft spotting==The “Imperial Hill” area (also known as Clutter’s
Park) in El Segundo is a prime location for aircraft spotting, especially for takeoffs. Another popular spotting location sits under
the final approach for runways 24 L&R on a lawn next to the Westchester In-N-Out Burger
on Sepulveda Boulevard. This is one of the few remaining locations
in Southern California from which spotters may watch such a wide variety of low-flying
commercial airliners from directly underneath a flight path.===Space Shuttle Endeavour===
At 12:51 p.m. on Friday, September 21, 2012, a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the Space
Shuttle Endeavour landed at LAX on runway 25L. An estimated 10,000 people saw the shuttle
land. Interstate 105 was backed up for miles at
a standstill. Imperial Highway was shut down for spectators. It was quickly taken off the Shuttle Carrier
Aircraft, a modified Boeing 747, and was moved to a United Airlines hangar. The shuttle spent about a month in the hangar
while it was prepared to be transported to the California Science Center.==Theme Building==The distinctive white googie Theme Building,
designed by Pereira & Luckman architect Paul Williams and constructed in 1961 by Robert
E. McKee Construction Co., resembles a flying saucer that has landed on its four legs. A restaurant with a sweeping view of the airport
is suspended beneath two arches that form the legs. The Los Angeles City Council designated the
building a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1992. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic
interior and electric lighting designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, was completed before
the Encounter Restaurant opened there in 1997. Visitors are able to take the elevator up
to the roof of the “Theme Building”, which closed after the September 11, 2001 attacks
for security reasons and reopened to the public on weekends beginning on July 10, 2010. Additionally, a memorial to the victims of
the 9/11 attacks is located on the grounds, as three of the four hijacked planes were
originally destined for LAX.==Runways==
24R/06L and 24L/06R (designated the North Airfield Complex) are north of the airport
terminals, and 25R/07L and 25L/07R (designated the South Airfield Complex) are south of the
airport terminals. Since 1972, Los Angeles World Airports has
adopted the “Preferential Runway Use Policy” to minimize noise. During daylight hours (0630 to 0000), the
normal air traffic pattern is the “Westerly Operations” plan, named for the prevailing
west winds. Under “Westerly Operations”, departing aircraft
take off to the west, and arriving aircraft approach from the east. To reduce noise from arriving aircraft during
night hours (0000 to 0630), the air traffic pattern becomes “Over-Ocean Operations”. Under “Over-Ocean”, departing aircraft continue
to take off to the west, but arriving aircraft approach from the west unless otherwise required
to approach from the east due to reduced visibility or easterly winds. As the name implies, “Easterly Operations”
is used when prevailing winds have shifted to originate from the east, typically during
inclement weather and Santa Ana conditions. Under “Easterly Operations”, departing aircraft
take off to the east, and arriving aircraft approach from the west.The “inboard” runways
(06R/24L and 07L/25R, closest to the central terminal area) are preferred for departures,
and the “outboard” runways are preferred for arrivals. During noise-sensitive hours (2200 to 0700)
and “Over-Ocean Operations”, the “inboard” runways are used preferentially, with arrivals
shifting primarily to 06R/24L and departures from 07L/25R. Historically, over 90% of flights have used
the “inboard” departures and “outboard” arrivals scheme.During westbound operations during
the daytime, airplanes parked on the north complex tend to use Runway 6R/24L for almost
all departures, and airplanes parked on the south complex use Runway 7L/25R for all departures
requiring the left turn, and Runway 24L if they are making an immediate right turn. For arrivals, flights coming from the north
tend to use Runway 6L/24R, and flights coming from the south tend to use Runway 7R/25L. For flights having a long final westbound,
it could depend. The South Airfield Complex tends to see more
operations than the North, due to a larger number of passenger gates and air cargo operations. Runways in the North Airfield Complex are
separated by 700 feet (210 m). Plans have been advanced and approved to increase
the separation by 260 feet (79 m), which would allow a central taxiway between runways, despite
opposition from residents living north of LAX. The separation between the two runways in
the South Airfield Complex has already increased by 55 feet (17 m) to accommodate a central
Overview===LAX has nine passenger terminals with a total
of 128 gates arranged in the shape of the letter U or a horseshoe. The terminals are served by a shuttle bus. The Tom Bradley International Terminal and
Terminals 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are all connected airside via an overground passage between
Terminal 4 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal, an underground tunnel between Terminals
4, 5, and 6 and above-ground walkways between Terminals 6, 7, and 8. Additional airside shuttle buses operate among
Terminals 4, 6, and the American Eagle remote terminal, as well as between Terminals 2,
3, and the Tom Bradley International Terminal. There are no physical airside connections
between any of the other terminals. In addition to these terminals, there are
2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of cargo facilities at LAX, and a heliport operated
by Bravo Aviation.Airlines are located in the following terminals:
Terminal 1 (Gates 9, 10, 11A-11B, 12A-12B, 13-15, 16A, and 17A-17B): Southwest. Southwest uses Terminal 1 for international
check-in of passengers. Terminal 2 (Gates 21–21B, 22–22A, 23-23A,
24–24A, and 25–28): Delta and Delta Connection along with Aer Lingus, Aeroméxico, Virgin
Atlantic, and WestJet. Virgin Australia and Volaris also use Terminal
2 for check-in of passengers. Terminal 3 (Gates 30, 31A–31B, 32, 33A–33B,
34–36, 37A–37B, and 38): Delta and Delta Connection. Copa Airlines, Avianca, and Interjet use Terminal
3 for check-in of passengers. Terminal 4 (Gates 40–41, 42A–42B, 43 , 45
, 46A–46C , 47A–47B, 48A–48B, and 49A-49B): American
Terminal 5 (Gates 50A–50B, 51A–51B, [Gates 52A-52J are located at the American Eagle
Terminal], 53A–53B, 54A–54B, 55A, 56–57, 58, and 59): American, American Eagle, Allegiant
Air, Frontier Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, JetBlue, Spirit Airlines, and Sun Country
Airlines Terminal 6 (Gates 60–63, 64A–64B, 65A-65B,
66, 67, 68A–68B, and 69A–69B): Alaska Airlines, Air Canada, Boutique Air, Mokulele
Airlines, Thomas Cook Airlines, VivaAerobus, and XL Airways France. Ethiopian Airlines uses Terminal 6 for check-in
of passengers. Terminal 7 (70A-70B, 71A-71B, 72A-72B, 73,
74A-74B, 75A-75B, 76A-76B, and 77A-77B): United and United Express
Terminal 8 (Gates 81, 83–88): United and United Express
Tom Bradley International Terminal (TBIT) (Gates 101-159): Aeroflot, Air China, Air
France, Air New Zealand, Air Tahiti Nui, Alitalia, All Nippon Airways, Asiana Airlines, Austrian
Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, China Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, China
Southern Airlines, EVA Air, El Al, Emirates, Etihad Airways, Fiji Airways, Hainan Airlines,
Hong Kong Airlines, Iberia, Japan Airlines, KLM, Korean Air, LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú,
LOT Polish Airlines, Lufthansa, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Philippine Airlines, Qantas,
Qatar Airways, Saudia, Scandinavian Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Swiss
International Air Lines, Turkish Airlines, XiamenAir, WOW Air uses TBIT for check-in
of passengers. Avianca, Copa Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines,
Interjet, Virgin Australia, and Volaris use TBIT for arrivals.==Airlines and destinations=====
Destination map=====
Traffic and statistics==LAX handles more “origin and destination”
(not connecting) passengers than any other airport in the world.The airport handled 28,861,477
enplanements, the total number of passengers boarding an aircraft, in 2008. This makes LAX the third busiest airport in
the United States in terms of enplanements.It is the world’s fifth-busiest airport by passenger
traffic and fifteenth-busiest by cargo traffic, serving over 70.6 million passengers and 2
million tons of freight and mail in 2014. It is the busiest airport in the state of
California, and the second-busiest airport by passenger boardings in the United States,
based on final 2013 statistics.In terms of international passengers, as of 2012, LAX
is the third-busiest in the United States (behind JFK in New York City and MIA in Miami)
and, as of 2006, 26th worldwide.The number of aircraft operations (landings and takeoffs)
has steadily increased to 636,706 in 2014, up from 614,917 in 2013, according to the
Federal Aviation Administration. The Airports Council International places
LAX at third most aircraft movements in the world, as of 2013.===Top domestic destinations======
Top international destinations======
Airline market share=====
Ground transportation=====
Transportation between terminals===Shuttles operate to and from the terminals,
providing frequent service for connecting passengers. However, connecting passengers who use these
shuttles must leave and then later reenter security.====Airside connectors====
Underground tunnels connect between terminals 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and an above-ground connector
between TBIT and terminal 4 opened in February 2016.===Freeways and roads===
LAX’s terminals are immediately west of the interchange between Century Boulevard and
Sepulveda Boulevard (State Route 1). The 405 Freeway can be reached to the east
via Century Boulevard, and the 105 Freeway can be reached to the south via Sepulveda
Boulevard. Sepulveda Boulevard also goes right under
the airport runways.===Bus===The closest bus stops to the terminals are
the pair of opposites on Sepulveda Boulevard and Century Boulevard, served by Metro 117,
Torrance 8, Metro 232, Commuter Express 574 and Metro 40 to Los Angeles Union Station
(owl service only). In addition, out of a number of bus systems,
many routes (local, rapid and express) of the LACMTA Metro 232 to Long Beach, Line 8
of Torrance Transit, Line 109 of Beach Cities Transit, the Santa Monica Big Blue Bus system’s
Line 3 and Rapid 3 via Lincoln Boulevard to Santa Monica and the Culver CityBus’s Line
6 and Rapid 6 via Sepulveda Blvd to Culver City and UCLA, LADOT Commuter Express 438
to Downtown LA (Monday-Friday Rush hours AM), all make stops at the LAX Transit Center in
Parking Lot C. on 96th St., where shuttle bus “C” offers free connections to and from
every LAX terminal, and at the Green Line, where shuttle bus “G” connects to and from
the terminals. The Taiwanese airline China Airlines operates
a bus service from LAX to Monterey Park and Rowland Heights. This service is only available for China Airlines
customers.====FlyAway Bus====The FlyAway Bus is a nonstop motorcoach/shuttle
service run by the LAWA, which provides scheduled service between LAX and Downtown Los Angeles
(Union Station), the San Fernando Valley (Van Nuys), West Los Angeles (Westwood), Hollywood,
Long Beach, California, and Santa Monica was discontinued in 2015. The Irvine FlyAway was discontinued on August
31, 2012. The shuttle service stops at every LAX terminal. The service hours vary based on the line. All lines use the regional system of High
Occupancy Vehicle lanes to expedite their trips. The Los Angeles Union Station service and
a late-night branch of Metro Local route 40 are the only direct transport links between
the airport and Downtown Los Angeles.====Metro Rail====
Shuttle bus “G” offers a free connection to and from the Aviation/LAX station on the Los
Angeles Metro Rail Green Line. The line was originally intended to be a people
mover to connect directly to the airport terminals, but budgetary restraints and opposition from
local taxi and parking lot owners impeded its progress and won.===LAX Train===
An automated people mover (APM) system is an under construction train by LAWA. The LAX APM will have six stations and be
2.25 miles in traveling distance: three stations serving the central area, terminals 1-8 and
the Tom Bradley International Terminal. Heading east, one station serving a ground
transportation hub called the Intermodal Transportation Facility-West along with the surrounding hotels. The next station will be a four level above
ground infill light rail station on the LAX/Crenshaw Metro Line. At this station, the first level will be a
second car/bus/bike transport facility called the Intermodal Transport Facility-East. Second level will be ticketing. The third level will be LA Metro rail’s 96th
Street Station and the fourth level will be the APM. The last stop will be a rental car hub station
called the Consolidated Rent-A-Car-Center (CONRAC). The APM was designed to decrease the need
for shuttle bus services and reduce traffic within World Way. The three phase project is estimated to cost
$5.5 billion, and have a completion date of 2023. The APM will have nine total trains, each
operating in four car sets with capacity of containing up to 200 passengers. The APM will operate every two minutes, with
a ten minute end-to-end travel time.As plans were being finalized, in June 2014, the Los
Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority approved a $200 million Metro Rail
infill station called Aviation/96th Street on the under construction Crenshaw/LAX Line
to connect the APM, connecting the terminals to county wide rail system.Los Angeles had
bid for the 2024 Olympic games in 2016 and was one of two city finalists, due to decreasing
demand to host the Olympics, the IOC awarded both Los Angeles and the city of Paris with
Olympic games each, Los Angeles being awarded the latter, the 2028 Summer Olympics games. The project will be completed in time for
the 2028 Summer Olympics in 2023 as its original projected completion date was by 2024 before
the awarding. They choose to retain the original deadline. LAWA has split the project in three phases. The project has been approved and the construction
and operating bidding process was commenced. Three firms submitted bids and LAWA announced
scoring for the project would be based on “technical merit, visual appeal, user experience
and price”. LAWA proposed a public private partnership
wherein a private sector partner would responsible for the construction and operation of the
people mover. Los Angeles City Council gave final approval
on April 11, 2018 to “LAX Integrated Express Solutions”. The joint bid that included manufacturer Bombardier
Transportation at 4.895 Billion over 30 years to build and operate.====Phase one construction====
Dallas based building firm Austin Commercial was awarded a five year contract to commence
construction in the first quarter of 2018 on phase one of the APM project. The project consists of bridges to connect
passengers between the three unbuilt APM stations inside World Way and its terminals. The bridges will also house restrooms, Airport
lounges offices and other spaces. The project is expected to finish by 2021,
followed by phases two and three that will consist of the actual people mover and off
site buildings. In January 2018, a consortium led by Hochtief
and Bombardier Transportation was selected as the preferred developer to be awarded the
$1.95 billion design/build/operate contract.As of early 2018, LAX was in the process of removing
2,100 parking spaces in lot C to reconfigure the area for phase two construction purposes. Utility relocation will start in the second
quarter of 2018. The guideway will see construction in early
2019, taking up to three years to complete.==Taxis and private shuttles==
Taxicab services are operated by nine city-authorized taxi companies and regulated by Authorized
Taxicab Supervision Inc. (ATS). ATS maintains a taxicab holding lot under
the 96th Street Bridge where, at peak periods, hundreds of cabs queue up to wait their turn
to pull into the central terminal area to pick up passengers. A number of private shuttle companies also
offer limousine and bus services to LAX Airport. Uber and Lyft both provide ride services to
and from LAX. All dropoffs and pickups happen on the upper
departures level. Pickups (arriving passengers) only happen
at one of the designated “rideshare signs.” There are six rideshare sign locations around
the airport, labeled A thru F. Lyft and Uber drivers are not allowed on the lower arrivals
area, except when picking up a disabled passenger who requires ADA access.==Coast Guard Air Station Los Angeles==The airport also functioned as a joint civil-military
facility, providing a base for the United States Coast Guard and its Coast Guard Air
Station Los Angeles facility, operating four HH-65 Dolphin helicopters, which covers Coast
Guard operations in various Southern California locations, including Catalina Island. Missions include search and rescue (SAR),
law enforcement, aids to navigation support (such as operating lighthouses) and various
military operations. In addition, Coast Guard helicopters assigned
to the air station deploy to Coast Guard cutters. The air station relocated by May 18, 2016
from LAX to accommodate the planned improvements for LAX’s midfield, including the Midfield
Satellite Concourse North (MSC North) terminal. The air station moved to U.S. Navy’s Naval
Air Station Point Mugu, part of the Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) in Point Mugu,
California.==Flight Path Learning Center & Museum==The Flight Path Learning Center is a museum
located at 6661 Imperial Highway and was formerly known as the “West Imperial Terminal”. This building used to house some charter flights
(e.g. Condor Airlines, Martinair Holland, World Airways) and regular scheduled flights
by MGM Grand Air. It sat empty for 10 years until it was re-opened
as a learning center for LAX. The center contains information on the history
of aviation, several pictures of the airport, as well as aircraft scale models, flight attendant
uniforms, and general airline memorabilia such as playing cards, china, magazines, signs,
even a TWA gate information sign. The museum also offers school tours and a
guest speaker program. The museum’s library contains an extensive
collection of rare items such as aircraft manufacturer company newsletters/magazines,
technical manuals for both military and civilian aircraft, industry magazines dating back to
World War II and before, historic photographs and other invaluable references on aircraft
operation and manufacturing.The museum has on display “The Spirit of Seventy-Six,” which
is a DC-3 (DC-3-262, Serial No. 3269). After being in commercial airline service,
the plane served as a corporate aircraft for Union Oil Company for 32 years. The plane was built in the Douglas Aircraft
Company plant in Santa Monica in January 1941, which was a major producer of both commercial
and military aircraft.The museum claims to be “the only aviation museum and research
center situated at a major airport and the only facility with a primary emphasis on contributions
of civil aviation to the history and development of Southern California”. There are other museums at major airports,
however, including the Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum adjacent
to Washington Dulles Airport, the Royal Thai Air Force Museum at Don Mueang Airport, the
Suomen ilmailumuseo (Finnish Aviation Museum) at Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, the Frontiers
of Flight Museum at Dallas Love Field, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium at
Tulsa International Airport and others.==Other facilities==The airport has the administrative offices
of Los Angeles World Airports.Continental Airlines once had its corporate headquarters
on the airport property. At a 1962 press conference in the office of
Mayor of Los Angeles Sam Yorty, Continental Airlines announced that it planned to move
its headquarters to Los Angeles in July 1963. In 1963 Continental Airlines headquarters
moved to a two-story, $2.3 million building on the grounds of the airport. The July 2009 Continental Magazine issue stated
that the move “underlined Continental Airlines western and Pacific orientation”. On July 1, 1983 the airline’s headquarters
were relocated to the America Tower in the Neartown area of Houston.In addition to Continental
Airlines, Western Airlines and Flying Tiger Line also had their headquarters at LAX.==Accidents and incidents==During its history there have been numerous
incidents, but only the most notable are summarized below:===1930s===
On January 23, 1939, the sole prototype Douglas 7B twin-engine attack bomber, designed and
built as a company project, suffered a loss of the vertical fin and rudder during a demonstration
flight over Mines Field, flat spun into the parking lot of North American Aviation, and
burned. Another source states that the test pilot,
in an attempt to impress the Gallic passenger, attempted a snap roll at low altitude with
one engine feathered, resulting in the fatal spin. Douglas test pilot Johnny Cable bailed out
at 300 feet, his chute unfurled but did not have time to deploy, he was killed on impact,
the flight engineer John Parks rode in the airframe and died, but 33-year-old French
Air Force Capt. Paul Chemidlin, riding in the aft fuselage near the top turret, survived
with a broken leg, severe back injuries, and a slight concussion. The presence of Chemidlin, a representative
of a foreign purchasing mission, caused a furor in Congress by isolationists over neutrality
and export laws. The type was developed as the Douglas DB-7.===1940s===
On June 1, 1940, the first Douglas R3D-1 for the U.S. Navy, BuNo 1901, crashed at Mines
Field, before delivery. The Navy later acquired the privately owned
DC-5 prototype, from William E. Boeing as a replacement. On November 20, 1940, the prototype NA-73X
Mustang, NX19998, first flown October 26, 1940, by test pilot Vance Breese, crashed
this date. According to P-51 designer Edgar Schmued,
the NA-73 was lost because test pilot Paul Balfour refused, before a high-speed test
run, to go through the takeoff and flight test procedure with Schmued while the aircraft
was on the ground, claiming “one airplane was like another”. After making two high speed passes over Mines
Field, he forgot to put the fuel valve on “reserve” and during the third pass ran out
of fuel. An emergency landing in a freshly plowed field
caused the wheels to dig in, the aircraft flipped over, the airframe was not rebuilt,
the second aircraft being used for subsequent testing. On October 26, 1944, WASP pilot Gertrude Tompkins
Silver of the 601st Ferrying Squadron, 5th Ferrying Group, Love Field, Dallas, Texas,
departed Los Angeles Airport, in a North American P-51D Mustang, 44-15669, at 1600 hrs PWT,
headed for the East Coast. She took off into the wind, into an offshore
fog bank, and was expected that night at Palm Springs. She never arrived. Due to a paperwork foul-up, a search did not
get under way for several days, and while the eventual search of land and sea was massive,
it failed to find a trace of Silver or her plane. She is the only missing WASP pilot. She had married Sgt. Henry Silver one month before her disappearance.===1960s===
On January 13, 1969, Scandinavian Airlines System Flight 933 Douglas DC-8-62, crashed
into Santa Monica Bay, approximately 6 nautical miles (11 km) west of LAX at 7:21 pm, local
time. The aircraft was operating as flight SK-933,
nearing the completion of a flight from Seattle. Of nine crewmembers, three lost their lives
to drowning, while 12 of the 36 passengers also drowned. On January 18, 1969, United Airlines Flight
266 a Boeing 727-200 bearing the registration number N7434U, crashed into Santa Monica Bay
approximately 11.3 miles (18.2 km) west of LAX at 6:21 pm local time. The aircraft was destroyed, resulting in the
loss of all 32 passengers and six crew members aboard.===1970s===
On the evening of June 6, 1971, Hughes Airwest Flight 706, a Douglas DC-9 jetliner that had
departed LAX on a flight to Salt Lake City, Utah, was struck nine minutes after takeoff
by a U.S. Marine Corps McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II fighter jet over the San Gabriel
Mountains. The midair collision killed all 44 passengers
and five crew members aboard the DC-9 airliner and one of two crewmen aboard the military
jet. On August 6, 1974, a bomb exploded near the
Pan Am ticketing area at Terminal 2; three people were killed and 35 were injured. On March 1, 1978, two tires burst in succession
on a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 on Continental Airlines Flight 603 during its takeoff roll
at LAX and the plane, bound for Honolulu, veered off the runway. A third tire burst and the DC-10’s left landing
gear collapsed, causing a fuel tank to rupture. Following the aborted takeoff, spilled fuel
ignited and enveloped the center portion of the aircraft in flames. During the ensuing emergency evacuation, a
husband and wife died when they exited the passenger cabin onto the wing and dropped
down directly into the flames. Two additional passengers died of their injuries
approximately three months after the accident; 74 others aboard the plane were injured, as
were 11 firemen battling the fire. On the evening of March 10, 1979, Swift Aire
Flight 235, a twin-engine Aerospatiale Nord 262A-33 turboprop en route to Santa Maria,
was forced to ditch in Santa Monica Bay after experiencing engine problems upon takeoff
from LAX. The pilot, co-pilot and a female passenger
drowned when they were unable to exit the aircraft after the ditching. The female flight attendant and the three
remaining passengers—two men and a pregnant woman—survived and were rescued by several
pleasure boats and other watercraft in the vicinity.===1980s===
On August 31, 1986, Aeroméxico Flight 498, a DC-9 en route from Mexico City, Mexico to
Los Angeles, began its descent into LAX when a Piper Cherokee collided with the DC-9’s
left horizontal stabilizer over Cerritos, California, causing the DC-9 to crash into
a residential neighborhood. All 67 people on the two aircraft were killed,
in addition to 15 people on the ground. 5 homes were destroyed and an additional 7
were damaged by the crash and resulting fire. The Piper went down in a nearby schoolyard
and caused no further injuries on the ground. As a result of this incident, the FAA required
all commercial aircraft to be equipped with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).===1990s===
On February 1, 1991, USAir Flight 1493 (arriving from Columbus, Ohio), a Boeing 737-300, landing
on runway 24L at LAX, collided on touchdown with a SkyWest Airlines Fairchild Metroliner,
Flight 5569 departing to Palmdale, California. The Skywest plane was given clearance to wait
on the runway for takeoff. The same controller then gave the USAir plane
clearance to land on the same runway, forgetting that the SkyWest plane was there. The collision killed all 12 occupants of the
SkyWest plane and 23 people aboard the USAir 737. On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990,
a Boeing 767-366ER which had initially began at LAX, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean 60
miles southwest of Nantucket Island 31 minutes after taking off from John F. Kennedy Airport
in New York City, killing all 217 passengers and crew on board. It is believed that the first officer Gameel
Al-Batouti intentionally crashed the plane, although this cause is disputed by the Egyptian
Al-Qaeda attempted to bomb LAX on New Year’s Eve 1999/2000. The bomber, Algerian Ahmed Ressam, was captured
in Port Angeles, Washington, the U.S. port of entry, with a cache of explosives that
could have produced a blast 40 times greater than that of a car bomb hidden in the trunk
of the rented car in which he had traveled from Canada. He had planned to leave one or two suitcases
filled with explosives in an LAX passenger waiting area. He was initially sentenced to 22 years in
prison, but in February 2010 an appellate court ordered that his sentence be extended. On January 31, 2000, Alaska Airlines Flight
261, a McDonnell Douglas MD-83 jetliner flying from Puerto Vallarta, Mexico to San Francisco
and Seattle, requested an emergency landing at LAX after experiencing problems with its
tail-mounted horizontal stabilizer. Before the plane could divert to Los Angeles,
it suddenly plummeted into the Pacific Ocean approximately 2.7 miles (4.3 km) north of
Anacapa Island off the California coast, killing all 88 people aboard. Three of the four planes hijacked on September
11th, 2001 were bound for LAX. In the 2002 Los Angeles International Airport
shooting of July 4, 2002, Hesham Mohamed Hadayet killed two Israelis at the ticket counter
of El Al Airlines at LAX. Although the gunman was not linked to any
terrorist group, the man was upset at U.S. support for Israel, and therefore was motivated
by political disagreement. This led the FBI to classify this shooting
as a terrorist act, one of the few on U.S. soil since the September 11 attacks. On September 21, 2005, JetBlue Flight 292,
an Airbus A320 discovered a problem with its landing gear as it took off from Bob Hope
Airport in Burbank, California. It flew in circles for three hours to burn
off fuel, then landed safely at Los Angeles International Airport on runway 25L, balancing
on its back wheels as it rolled down the center of the runway. Passengers were able to watch their own coverage
live from the satellite broadcast on JetBlue in-flight TV seat displays of their plane
as it made an emergency landing with the front landing gear visibly becoming damaged. Because JetBlue did not serve LAX at the time,
the aircraft was evaluated and repaired at a Continental Airlines hangar. On July 29, 2006, after America West Express
Flight 6008, a Canadair Regional Jet operated by Mesa Airlines from Phoenix, Arizona, landed
on runway 25L, controllers instructed the pilot to leave the runway on a taxiway known
as “Mike” and stop short of runway 25R. Even though the pilot read back the instructions
correctly, he accidentally taxied onto 25R and into the path of a departing SkyWest Airlines
Embraer EMB-120 operating United Express Flight 6037 to Monterey, California. They cleared each other by 50 feet (15 m)
and nobody was hurt. On August 16, 2007, a runway incursion occurred
between WestJet Flight 900 and Northwest Airlines Flight 180 on runways 24R and 24L, respectively,
with the aircraft coming within 37 feet (11 m) of each other. The planes were carrying a combined total
of 296 people, none of whom were injured. The NTSB concluded that the incursion was
the result of controller error. In September 2007, FAA Administrator Marion
Blakey stressed the need for LAX to increase lateral separation between its pair of north
runways in order to preserve the safety and efficiency of the airport.===2010s===
On October 13 and 14, 2013, two incidents of dry ice bomb explosions occurred at the
airport. The first dry ice bomb exploded at 7:00 p.m.
in an employee restroom in Terminal 2, with no injuries. Terminal 2 was briefly shut down as a result. On the next day at 8:30 p.m., a dry ice bomb
exploded on the ramp area near the Tom Bradley International Terminal, also without injuries. Two other plastic bottles containing dry ice
were found at the scene during the second explosion. On October 15, a 28-year-old airport employee
was arrested in connection with the explosions and was booked on charges of possession of
an explosive or destructive device near an aircraft. He is currently held on a $1 million bail. On October 18, a 41-year-old airport employee
was arrested in connection with the second explosion, and was booked on suspicion of
possessing a destructive device near an aircraft. Authorities believe that the incidents are
not linked to terrorism. In the 2013 Los Angeles International Airport
shooting of November 1, 2013, at around 9:31 a.m. PDT, a lone gunman entered Terminal 3
and opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle, killing a Transportation Security Administration
(TSA) officer and wounding three other people. The gunman was later apprehended and taken
into custody. Until the situation was clarified and under
control, a few terminals at the airport were evacuated, all inbound flights were diverted
and all outbound flights were grounded until the airport began returning to normal operation
at around 2:30 p.m. On August 28, 2016, there was a false report
of shots fired throughout the airport, causing a temporary lock down and about 3 hours of
flight delays. On May 20, 2017, Aeroméxico Flight 642, a
Boeing 737-800, collided with a utility truck on a taxiway near Runway 25R, injuring 8 people,
two of them seriously.==Planned modernization project==LAWA currently has several plans to modernize
LAX. These include terminal and runway improvements,
which will enhance the passenger experience, reduce overcrowding, and provide airport access
to the latest class of very large passenger aircraft. These improvements include:
New crossfield taxiway New large aircraft gates at Tom Bradley International
Terminal (TBIT) TBIT core improvements
New Midfield Satellite Concourse Replacement of Central Utility Plant
Terminal and Runway ImprovementsLAWA is also planning to construct and operate a 24-hour
automated people mover. This small train will include three stations
in the central terminal area and three outside east of the terminals at a new intermodal
transportation facility hub, connecting passengers between the central terminal area and the
Metro Green Line, the future Metro Crenshaw/LAX Line regional and local bus lines and a consolidated
car rental facility.==In popular culture==Numerous films and television shows have been
set or filmed partially at LAX, at least partly due to the airport’s proximity to Hollywood
studios and Los Angeles. Film shoots at the Los Angeles airports, including
LAX, produced $590 million for the Los Angeles region from 2002 to 2005.==See also==California World War II Army Airfields
List of airports in the Los Angeles area Metro
Los Angeles Airport Police Peirson Mitchell Hall

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *