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Metro Manila | Wikipedia audio article

Metro Manila | Wikipedia audio article

Metropolitan Manila (Filipino: Kalakhang Maynila)
is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines. It is officially known as the National Capital
Region (NCR), and is commonly known as Metro Manila or simply Manila. It is made up of 16 cities namely: the City
of Manila (the Philippine capital), Quezon City (the country’s most populous city and
former capital), Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa,
Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, and Valenzuela, as well as the municipality
of Pateros. The region encompasses an area of 619.57 km2
(239.22 sq mi) and has a population of 12,877,253 as of 2015. It is the second most populous and the most
densely populated region of the Philippines. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan
area in Asia and the 5th most populous urban area in the world. The region is the center of culture, economy,
education and government of the Philippines. Designated as a global power city, NCR exerts
a significant impact on commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology,
education, and entertainment, both locally and internationally. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies
in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the
country. Its economic power makes the region the country’s
premier center for finance and commerce. The region accounts for 37.2% of the gross
domestic product of the Philippines.The region was established in 1975 through Presidential
Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the
creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the predecessor entity
of the region, is one of the first eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial
rule in the Philippines at the end of the 19th century. Manila’s role in the Revolution is honored
in the Flag of the Philippines, where the sun’s eight rays symbolize the eight revolutionary
provinces.==History==A historical province known as Manila encompassed
territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities. This included the well-known Pasig River delta
settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig,
Pateros, and the fortified polity of Cainta. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines,
with Manila (Intramuros) serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of Manila and
23 other municipalities. Mariquina also served as the capital from
1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the
United States. The province was dissolved and most of it
was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila
was considered as one of the original global cities. The Manila galleon was the first known commercially
traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes
of luxury goods, economic benefits, and cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of
the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned
to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government. The creation of Manila in 1901 is composed
of the places and parishes of Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Manila, Pandacan, Quiapo,
Sampaloc, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana
de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo. Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan,
Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San
Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated
into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon
City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed. The establishment of Quezon City meant the
demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment
of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss
most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, the loss of more than
100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. Later on, Quezon City was eventually declared
as the national capital on 1948. The tile was re-designated back to Manila
in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the
almost uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial
period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila
has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city
of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.During the
war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure,
merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan,
Las Piñas, Mariquina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San
Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri, Muntinlupa and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included
in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was
Quezon’s principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority
recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by
the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied
regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model
for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila
that was established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally
established through Presidential Decree No. 824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was also
created to manage the region. On June 2, 1978, through Presidential Decree
No. 1396, the metropolitan area was declared the National Capital Region of the Philippines. When Metro Manila was established, there were
four cities, Manila, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and the thirteen municipalities of Las
Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San
Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. At present, all of these municipalities except
for one have become an independent charted city; only Pateros remains as a municipality. President Ferdinand Marcos appointed his wife,
First Lady Imelda Marcos as the first governor of Metro Manila. She launched the City of Man campaign. The Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex,
Metropolitan Folk Arts Theater, Philippine International Convention Center, Coconut Palace
and healthcare facilities such as the Lung Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart
Center, and the Kidney Center of the Philippines are all constructed precisely for this purpose. President Marcos was overthrown in a non-violent
revolution along EDSA, which lasted three days in late February 1986. The popular uprising, now known as the People
Power Revolution, made international headlines as “the revolution that surprised the world”.In
1986, President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order No. 392, reorganizing and changing the
structure of the Metropolitan Manila Commission and renamed it to the Metropolitan Manila
Authority. Mayors in the metropolis chose from among
themselves the chair of the agency. Later on, it was again reorganized in 1995
through Republic Act 7924, creating the present-day Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. The chairperson of the agency will be appointed
by the President and should not have a concurrent elected position such as mayor. Former Laguna province governor Joey Lina
was the last to serve as the Officer-In-Charge governor of Metro Manila.By late 2014, then-MMDA
Chairman Francis Tolentino proposed that San Pedro City, Laguna be included in Metro Manila
as its 18th member city. Tolentino said that in the first meeting of
the MMDA Council of mayors in January 2015, he will push for the inclusion of the city
to the MMDA.Senator Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel III is seeking the separation of the City
of San Pedro from the first legislative district of Laguna province to constitute a lone congressional
district. In 2015, Pimentel filed Senate Bill No. 3029
for the creation of the San Pedro City as a separate district to commence in the next
national and local elections.==Geography==Metro Manila is located in the southwestern
portion of Luzon. The region lies along the flat alluvial lands
extending from the mouth of the Pasig River in the west to the higher rugged lands of
Marikina Valley in the east. The region is geographically divided into
4 zones: the Coastal Margin, Guadalupe Plateau, Marikina Valley, and the Laguna Lowlands. The Coastal Margin that faces the Manila Bay
possesses resources for offshore fisheries and fishpond development. The various reclamation projects in the area
are meant for mixed-use urban development. The Guadalupe Plateau is the most adaptable
to urban development activities not only because of its solid geographical foundations but
also because of its existing infrastructure links with the rest of Luzon. The Marikina Valley has fertile land suitable
for crop cultivation while the Marikina River provides water for industrial uses and discharge. The Laguna Lowlands is not only suitable for
agriculture and aquaculture but also for industrial activity.===Natural hazards===
Metro Manila is exposed to multiple natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, and typhoons. It is surrounded by active faults including
the Marikina Valley Fault System. Other distant faults such as the Philippine
Faults, Lubang Faults, Manila Trench and Casiguran Faults, are a threat as well. Flooding is recurrent every year especially
in low-lying areas. Around five to seven typhoons hit Manila yearly. Manila was ranked as the second riskiest capital
city after Tokyo to live in according to Swiss Re.===Climate===
According to the Köppen climate classification, there are two climates in Metro Manila. Most of the region has a tropical wet and
dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) while the northeastern part of the region
that lies on the foothills of Sierra Madre has a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines,
Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that temperatures
are hot year-round, rarely going below 15 °C or above 39 °C. Temperature extremes
have ranged from 14.4 °C on January 11, 1914, to 38.5 °C on May 7, 1915.Humidity levels
are usually very high all year round. Manila has a distinct dry season from December
through May, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with
slightly cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day,
but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.===Cityscapes======Parks===There are two national parks in Metro Manila
which is managed by the National Parks and Development Committee (NPDC), the Rizal Park
and Paco Park in the City of Manila. NPDC used to manage Fort Santiago in Intramuros
and the Quezon Memorial National Park in Quezon City. A tripartite agreement between the Quezon
City Government, the National Historical Institute and the NPDC transferred the management of
Quezon Memorial National Park to the Quezon City Government while the maintenance of Fort
Santiago was transferred to Intramuros Administration. The region has three protected areas, namely
the Rizal Park, Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center and the Manila Bay Beach Resort.Rizal
Park, also known as Luneta Park, is considered as the largest urban park in Asia with an
area of 58 hectares (140 acres). The park along with the historic walled area
of Intramuros are designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise zone according
to the Tourism Act of 2009. Paco Park is a recreational garden which was
once the city’s municipal cemetery built by the Dominicans during the Spanish colonial
period. Filipino Landscape Architect IP Santos, the
“Father of Philippine Landscape Architecture”, was commissioned to do the design of converting
the former cemetery into a park. Manila Zoo is the oldest zoo in Asia, which
was founded on 1959. It is the home to more than a thousand animals
from different 90 species including the 40-year-old elephant, Mali. The zoo has an average of 4,000 visitors weekly. An estimated 40,000 tourists visits the zoo
each month.La Mesa Ecopark is a 33-hectare well-developed sanctuary around the La Mesa
Watershed. It was established through a joint partnership
between the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, ABS-CBN, and the Quezon City Government. La Mesa Ecopark, along with the Ninoy Aquino
Parks & Wildlife Center, are important nature reserves in the Philippines. The Las Piñas-Parañaque Critical Habitat
and Ecotourism Area (LPPCHEA) was declared as a critical habitat by the Government of
the Philippines in 2007 and was listed by the Ramsar Convention as a Wetland of International
Importance in 2013. LPPCHEA is composed of the Freedom Island
in Parañaque and the Long Island in Las Piñas that covers 175 hectares and features a mangrove
forest of eight species, tidal mudflats, secluded ponds with fringing salt-tolerant vegetation,
a coastal lagoon, and a beach.==Government and politics==The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
(MMDA) is the agency responsible for the delivery of public services in Metro Manila. Its services are limited to traffic management
and garbage collection. Previously Metro Manila was governed by a
regional government authority, the Metro Manila Commission and was led by a governor. A bill was introduced in 2014 proposing the
creation of a new governing body in Metro Manila to be known as the Metropolitan Manila
Regional Administration (MMRA). Unlike the MMDA which is limited to being
an administrative coordinating body, the proposed MMRA will have police and other typical municipal
powers and is more akin to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.Metro Manila, the
National Capital Region, is the seat of the national government. All the main offices of the executive departments
of the country are in Metro Manila. The Department of Agrarian Reform, Department
of Agriculture, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Housing Authority
and Philippine Coconut Authority has their main offices based around Quezon Memorial
Circle in Quezon City. Manila, the capital city of the country, is
the home to Malacañan Palace, the official residence and office of the President of the
Philippines. The city is also the home to the Supreme Court
of the Philippines. Other key national institutions based in Manila
are the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and the Departments of Budget
and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and
Highways. Meanwhile, the Department of Science and Technology
is based in Taguig while the Department of Tourism has its headquarters in Makati. Important economic and financial institutions
headquartered in the region are the Asian Development Bank, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas,
Development Bank of the Philippines, Land Bank of the Philippines and the National Economic
and Development Authority. The main office of the Government Service
Insurance System in Pasay serves as home to the Senate of the Philippines. Meanwhile, the House of Representatives of
the Philippines is based in the Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City along with the Sandiganbayan. The Coconut Palace once served as the official
office and residence of the Vice President of the Philippines in 2010 – 2016. The Quezon City Reception House has been serving
this purpose since 2016.===Local Government Units===
The political and administrative boundaries of the National Capital Region has not changed
since its formation in 1975 as a public corporation under Presidential Decree No. 824. They are composed of sixteen independent cities,
classified as highly urbanized cities, and one independent municipality: Pateros.===Districts===
Unlike other administrative regions in the Philippines, Metro Manila is not composed
of provinces. Instead, the region is divided into four geographic
areas called “districts.” The districts have their district centers
at the four original cities in the region: the city-district of Manila (Capital District),
Quezon City (Eastern Manila), Caloocan (Northern Manila, also informally known as CAMANAVA),
and Pasay (Southern Manila). The districts serve mainly to organize the
region’s local government units for fiscal and statistical purposes.===Future expansion===
There is a high clamor for the inclusion of San Pedro City, Laguna in Metro Manila. Support groups from the local government and
non-government organizations are striving to incorporate San Pedro into Metro Manila.San
Pedro City eyed as 18th member of Metro Manila. Former Metro Manila Development Authority
(MMDA) Chairman Francis Tolentino is pushing for the inclusion of San Pedro City in the
National Capital Region, and eventually become its 18th member city. Tolentino said that in the first meeting of
the MMDA Council of mayors in January 2015, he will push for the inclusion of the city
to the MMDA.Senator Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel III is seeking the separation of the City
of San Pedro from the first legislative district of Laguna province to constitute a lone congressional
district. In 2015, Pimentel filed a bill for the creation
of the San Pedro City as a separate district to commence in the next national and local
Metro Manila has a population of 12,877,253 according to the 2015 national census. Its total urban area, composed of the urban
agglomeration which refers to the continuous urban expansion of Metro Manila into the provinces
of Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna and Batangas has an estimated population of 24,100,000 as of
2015. It is the most populous and densely populated
region in the Philippines, the 7th most populous metropolitan area in Asia, and the 3rd most
populous urban area in the world. The most populous cities in Metro Manila are
Quezon City (2,936,116), Manila (1,780,148), Caloocan (1,583,978), Taguig (804,915), Pasig
(755,300), Parañaque (665,822), Valenzuela (620,422), Las Piñas (588,894), Makati (582,602)
and Muntinlupa (504,509).===Poverty, housing and urban slums===In 2014, there are an estimated four million
slum dwellers living in Metro Manila. Homelessness is also a major problem in Metro
Manila. However, these are being addressed by creating
in-city relocation housing, and by relocating informal settler families in low-density housing
built in the nearby provinces of Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal. During the American occupation, housing policies
in Manila dealt with the problem of sanitation and concentration of settlers around business
areas. Among those implemented were business codes
and sanitation laws in slum areas in the 1930s. During this period and until the 1950s, new
communities were opened for relocation. Among these were Projects 1 − 8 in Diliman,
Quezon City and the Vitas tenement houses in Tondo. The government implemented the Public Housing
Policy in 1947 that established the People’s Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC). A few years later, it put up the Slum Clearance
Committee which, with the help of the PHHC, relocated thousands of families from Tondo
and Quezon City to Sapang Palay in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan in the 1960s. During the time of President Ferdinand Marcos,
the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank supported the programs for the “development
of relocation” and “on-site development.” Carmona and Dasmariñas in Cavite and San
Pedro in Laguna opened as relocation sites. Along with the establishment of the National
Housing Authority, Presidential Decree 772 made squatting a crime, making the Philippines
one of only two countries (the other is South Africa) where squatting is a crime. The government formulated the National Shelter
Program which became the over-all framework for dealing with housing needs of all income
classes. Imelda Marcos held both the position as Governor
of Metro Manila and as Minister of Human Settlements and Ecology or MHSE until the downfall of
the dictatorship in 1986. The MHSE, through loans from the World Bank,
initiated the Bagong Lipunan Improvement of Sites and Services (BLISS) housing projects
not only in Metro Manila but also in other provinces. From 1960 to 1992, the government transferred
some 328,000 families to resettlement sites 25–40 km from Metro Manila. According to the Asian Coalition on Housing
Rights, during Corazon C. Aquino’s time, the government would bring some 100,000 persons
to relocation sites yearly. During the said period, Sapang Palay and Carmona
had a 60% abandonment rate. Congress enacted RA 7279 or the Urban Development
and Housing Act (UDHA) in 1992. The law gave a new name for the squatters:
informal settlers. Essentially, UDHA gives protection for big
private ownership of land in the urban areas, ensuring that these are protected from illegal
occupants. The law also widened the scope of private
sector participation in the National Shelter Program (NSP). In the middle of the Arroyo administration’s
term, infrastructure projects of the government led to the demolition of hundreds of thousands
of families (from along railways, C4 road, C5 road, and from Fort Bonifacio). During the same period, new relocation sites
in Bulacan, Valenzuela and Caloocan opened. Under the PNoy administration, 556,526 families
in Metro Manila have to be brought to relocation sites not only to solve the problem of flooding
but also to give way to infrastructure projects and private real estate developments.==Economy==The National Capital Region accounts for 37.2%
of the gross domestic product of the Philippines in 2013. Furthermore, it has the highest per capita
GDP of the country at ₱183,747. The employment rate of NCR is at 89.6% as
of 2012. According to Brookings Institution, the 2014
share of output by industry in Metro Manila is as follows: trade and tourism: 31.4%, business/finance:
28.6%, local/non-market: 15.6%, manufacturing: 12.5%, transportation: 4.9%, construction:
4%, utilities: 2.8%, and commodities: 0.3%.Metro Manila will add 1.85 million square meters
of office spaces between 2015 and 2017 in the central business districts in Makati,
Taguig, and Quezon City as more global firms such as Google and HSBC seeks to outsource
business process in the Philippines. The vacancy rate for office spaces remains
low, at less 3% in the year-end of 2014. Manila remains as the least expensive capital
city in the Asia-Pacific to occupy prime office space at an average rent of $22 per square
meter per month.Metro Manila makes it to the “Global Top 30” cities according to property
consultancy firm Jones Lang Lasalle, citing its economic scale, vast population, large
gross domestic product and BPO specialization as its competitive edge. Furthermore, the region ranks 3rd for the
top business process outsourcing global destinations, next to Bangalore and Mumbai. The region’s retail sector remains strong,
bolstered by remittances abroad, BPOs, and its tourism sector.Historically, the main
business district of the metropolis was Binondo, where commercial trading flourished since
the 15th century. By the 1960s, economic activities shifted
from Binondo to Makati. It transformed Makati it into one of the leading
financial centers in Asia. Still, Binondo remained as a cultural and
financial center because of the vast Chinese population residing and doing business in
the area. The minimum wage of Metro Manila is at ₱481
($10.77) for non-agricultural workers and at ₱444 ($9.94) for those working in the
agricultural sector, the highest minimum wage among all the 17 regions of the country. However, an increase of ₱25 was made and
implemented in November 2018.===Central Business Districts===Metro Manila has many central business districts
(CBD), which categorizes it under the multiple nuclei model in human geography terms. The most prominent CBDs are the Makati Central
Business District, Bonifacio Global City, Ortigas Center, Binondo, and Alabang. The region also has plenty of mixed-use developments
owned and developed by private corporations such as the Ayala Corporation, Eton Properties,
Megaworld Corporation and SM Prime Holdings. Makati, the sixteenth most populous city in
the Philippines, is the premier business and commercial center of the Philippines. The Central Business District is the headquarters
to most of the multinational corporations residing in the Philippines as well as the
country’s biggest commercial firms and BPO companies. The Central Business District has an office
stock of 1.1 million square meters of Grade A and premium office space. It is the home to the tallest skyscrapers
in the region as well as in the country. Bonifacio Global City is the newest business
district of Manila and is the premier financial and lifestyle center of the metropolis. It is located in the north-western part of
Taguig City. It used to be a military base known as Fort
Bonifacio. The Bases and Conversion Development Authority
(BCDA) privatized the property and its income from the sale was intended to be used for
the modernization of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Upon its privatization, the place was transformed
it into a business hub featuring numerous tourist attractions such as The Mind Museum,
high-end shops, towering office skyscrapers, and luxurious lofts and condominiums. Bonifacio Global City will soon overtake the
Makati Central Business District as the premier financial center of the country in the future. One of the reasons for it is that the Philippine
Stock Exchange will relocate its headquarters in BGC. Also, it has more spaces and land for future
developments. It is also the most active business district,
generating over 50 percent of the growth in property market and has more available space
for rent or lease and sale than Makati.Ortigas Center is the central business district located
in Mandaluyong and Pasig, with a small portion of it located in Quezon City. Landmarks in Ortigas include the EDSA Shrine,
Shangri-La Plaza and the SM Megamall. Furthermore, The Medical City has its main
campus in Ortigas Center. Important financial and national institutions
headquartered in Ortigas are the Asian Development Bank, Union Bank of The Philippines and the
National Economic and Development Authority. Ortigas is also the home to the headquarters
of San Miguel Corporation, Jollibee Foods Corporation, Lopez Group of Companies and
The Manila Electric Company.===Shopping===Global Blue ranked Manila as one of the “Best
Shopping Destinations” in Asia. Metro Manila is home to some of the largest
shopping malls in the world, three of which are in the top 10. SM Megamall in Mandaluyong ranks as the 3rd
largest shopping mall in the world, followed by SM City North EDSA in Quezon City bagging
the 4th place. Meanwhile, SM Mall of Asia in Pasay ranks
as the 9th largest shopping mall in world. Other shopping malls in Metro Manila in the
list of the largest shopping malls in Metro Manila are the Ever Gotesco Commonwealth Center,
Festival Supermall, Greenbelt, Market! Market!, SM Aura Premier, SM Southmall and
TriNoma.===Tourism and Gambling===Tourism is a vital industry of the region. Metro Manila is the main gateway to the Philippines. Trade and tourism represents 31.4% of share
of NCR’s output by industry according to Brookings Institution. Metro Manila welcomed 974,379 overnight visitors
in 2012, making it the top overnight tourist destination of the country. Manila is visited by the majority of international
tourists coming to the country registering a total of 3,139,756 arrivals in 2012.Metro
Manila has opened 4,612 hotel rooms in 2015. It is also expected to exceed the 3,500 annual
addition of hotel rooms in the next two years. Gambling in Metro Manila has also become a
popular tourist attraction in the region. Metro Manila is a popular gaming destination
in Asia, rivaling other major gaming destinations such as Macau and Singapore. There are around 20 casinos in the metropolis,
featuring luxurious casino hotels and integrated resorts. Its thriving local gambling market makes Manila
attractive to casino operators. Popular gaming destinations are Entertainment
City in Bay City, Parañaque which contains the City of Dreams Manila and Solaire Resort
& Casino, and Newport City in Pasay. Intramuros is the historic walled area within
the modern City of Manila. Originally, it was considered to be Manila
itself at the time when the Philippines was under the Spanish Empire colonial rule. Owing to its history and cultural value, Intramuros
and Rizal Park were designated as flagship destination to become a tourism enterprise
zone in the Tourism Act of 2009. Intramuros is managed by the Intramuros Administration. The architecture of Intramuros reflects the
Spanish colonial style and the American neoclassical architectural style, since the Philippines
was a colony of Spain and the United States before it was granted its independence in
1946. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation
in Intramuros and nearby places such as Binondo, Ermita and the Rizal Park. Popular tourist destinations in Intramuros
include the Baluarte de San Diego, Club Intramuros Golf Course, Cuartel de Santa Lucia, Fort
Santiago, Manila Cathedral, Palacio Arzobispal, Palacio de Santa Potenciana, Palacio del Gobernador,
Plaza Mexico, Plaza de Roma, San Agustin Church and its newest tourist attraction, the Ayuntamiento
de Manila.Some of the country’s oldest schools are founded in Intramuros, these are the University
of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), and Ateneo de Manila University
(1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620)
remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc
in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining
“de Manila” in its name) in 1952. Other prominent educational institutions include
the Manila High School and the University of the City of Manila.==Culture and contemporary life==Metro Manila is widely celebrated in popular
lore, frequently the setting for mostly Filipino books, movies, and television programs. Flores de Mayo is widely celebrated throughout
all the places in Metro Manila. The yearly Metro Manila Film Festival, inaugurated
in 1966, is the forerunner of all Philippine film festivals.===Arts===Metro Manila is the home to the National Museum
of the Philippines, the national museum of the country. It operates a chain of museums located in
the grounds of Rizal Park just outside Intramuros, such as the National Museum of Fine Arts,
the National Museum of Anthropology and the National Museum of Natural History. The National Museum complex occupies the place
and buildings that were a part of a new capital center proposed by Daniel Burnham in 1901. Prominent museums in Metro Manila include
the Ayala Museum, Bahay Tsinoy, Casa Manila, Lopez Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Manila,
The Mind Museum, Museo Pambata, Museo Valenzuela, Museum of Philippine Political History, Pasig
City Museum and the Rizal Shrine. Museums established by educational institutions
are the Ateneo Art Gallery, Jorge B. Vargas Museum and Filipiniana Research Center, Museum
of Contemporary Art and Design, UP Museum of a History of Ideas, and the UST Museum
of Arts and Sciences. The national theater of the Philippines, known
as the “Tanghalang Pambansa”, is situated on a 62-hectare (150-acre) cultural center
called the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex. The complex is located between the cities
of Manila and Pasay. Aside from the CCP, other popular performing
arts venue include Cuneta Astrodome, Mall of Asia Arena, Rizal Park, Quezon Memorial
Circle and Smart Araneta Coliseum. Other venues used are the UPFI Film Center
and UP Theater in the University of the Philippines Diliman. The famed Manila Metropolitan Theater, also
known as The Met, was constructed in 1931 and was known as the “Grand Dame” among all
the Art Deco theaters of Manila. Years of neglect forces its closure in 1996. The Met will be restored through a tripartite
agreement with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the National Museum
of the Philippines and the Escuela Taller.===Religion===
Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion in Metro Manila. Other Christian denominations, Muslims, Anitists,
animists, and atheists are the minority. Among the most important religious sites in
the region are Manila Cathedral, San Sebastian Church (Manila), Tondo Church, San Agustin
Church (Manila), and Quiapo Church.===Sports===The National Capital Region is the home to
the headquarters of the ASEAN Basketball League, Baseball Philippines, Philippine Basketball
Association, Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League, Philippine Super Liga, Shakey’s V-League
and the Philippines Football League. Collegiate leagues based in the National Capital
Region are the Colleges and Universities Sports Association, National Athletic Association
of Schools, Colleges and Universities, National Collegiate Athletic Association, National
Capital Region Athletic Association, State Colleges and Universities Athletic Association,
Universities and Colleges Athletic Association, University Athletic Association of the Philippines,
Women’s National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Men’s National Collegiate Athletic
Association. Two national sports complex is located in
the region, the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and the PhilSports Complex. The Wack Wack Golf and Country Club has hosted
major tournaments such as the Philippine Open and the World Cup. Prominent sporting venues in Metro Manila
include the Smart Araneta Coliseum, Mall of Asia Arena, Filoil Flying V Arena and the
Cuneta Astrodome. The Greater Manila Area is also home to the
Philippine Arena, the world’s largest indoor arena. It is located in Bocaue, Bulacan and it has
a maximum capacity of 55,000 people.Metro Manila’s, and in general the country’s main
sport is basketball. Another popular sport in the city are cue
sports, and billiard halls are found in many places. Baseball, volleyball, football and swimming
are also widely played sports. NCR has been the champion of the Palarong
Pambansa for 13 straight years. Manila Storm are a rugby league team training
out of Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing home matches at the Southern Plains Field,
Calamba, Laguna. The Metro Manila area is also home to a number
of rugby union teams such as the Alabang Eagles, Makati Mavericks, Manila Nomads Sports Club
and the Manila Hapons.==Human resources=====
Education===Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila
has been the center of education. The University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio
de San Juan de Letran (1620) and Ateneo de Manila University (1859) are some of the oldest
educational institutions that was established during the colonial period. The University of the Philippines, along with
seven other State Universities and Colleges (SUC), namely the Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez
Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina Polytechnic College, Philippine Normal University,
Philippine State College of Aeronautics, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Rizal Technological
University and the Technological University of the Philippines, are based in Metro Manila. Manila’s University Belt form the largest
concentration of higher education institutes in the Philippines, making Manila the center
for higher learning in the country. Prominent secondary schools in Metro Manila
include the Philippine Science High School in Diliman, Quezon City, the national science
school of the Philippines and the Manila Science High School in Ermita, the forerunner of all
the science schools in the country. Primary and secondary education is in the
region is governed by the Department of Education-National Capital Region (DepEd-NCR). Meanwhile, the higher educational institutions
are under the CHED-National Capital Region. NCR has the highest literacy rate among all
the regions of the Philippines, with 99.2% in 2008. Literacy rate for males is at 99.0% while
literacy rate for females is at 99.4%. For the school year of 2008–2009, Metro
Manila has 511 public elementary schools and 220 public secondary schools. There are 309 tertiary (public and private)
institutions as of the year-end of 2009. For the said school year, enrollment in public
elementary schools is at 1,219,333, public secondary schools at 661,019 and 687,096 for
tertiary (public and private) institutions.===Public health===Healthcare in NCR is mostly provided by private
corporations. 72% of Metro Manila’s hospitals are privately
owned. As of 2009, the region has 179 hospitals. Quezon City has the most number of hospitals
while Valenzuela and Pateros do not have any. In 2008, government health workers in NCR
comprises 590 doctors, 498 dentists, 4,576 nurses, and 17,437 midwives. Furthermore, Metro Manila has 27,779 beds
with a ratio of 2.47 per 1,000 population as of 2008. NCR has the lowest malnutrition rate among
all the regions in the country.The headquarters of the World Health Organization Regional
Office for the Western Pacific, and the World Health Organization Country Office for the
Philippines are in NCR. The main office of the Department of Health,
the national health department, is also in the region. NCR is designated by the Department of Health
as the pioneer of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually. However, lack of progressive health system,
inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances
for its growth. Under the Philippine Medical Tourism Program,
there are 16 participating hospitals (private and public) in Metro Manila with a total number
of 6,748 beds as of 2013. Five out of six hospitals in the country accredited
by the Joint Commission International are in the region, these are the Asian Hospital
and Medical Center, Makati Medical Center, St. Luke’s Medical Center – Global City,
St. Luke’s Medical Center – Quezon City and The Medical City.East Avenue in Quezon
City is the location of prominent national health centers: the Lung Center of the Philippines,
National Kidney and Transplant Institute, and the Philippine Heart Center. Other national special hospital in Metro Manila
include the Philippine Orthopedic Center in Quezon City, and the National Center for Mental
Health in Mandaluyong. The Philippine General Hospital, the country’s
premier state-owned tertiary hospital is located at the City of Manila. The St. Luke’s Medical Center which operates
in Quezon City and Taguig, is a private tertiary referral hospital cited as one of the best
hospitals in the world.===Public safety===The Philippine National Police is responsible
for law enforcement in the country. Its headquarters is located at Camp Crame
along Bonny Serrano Avenue, Quezon City. The National Capital Region Police Office
(NCRPO) is the regional branch of PNP that operates in NCR. Its headquarters is located at Camp Bagong
Diwa in Bicutan, Taguig. Under the supervision of NCRPO, Metro Manila
is divided into five police districts. The five police districts are the Northern
Police District, Eastern Police District, Southern Police District and Quezon City Police
District.Metro Manila has the highest rate of crime in the country in 2014, with 59,448
crimes reported (excluding crimes reported in barangay level) with 25,353 of these crimes
committed against persons. Following criticisms of high crime rate in
Metro Manila, the Philippine National Police launched a relentless anti-crime drive that
resulted in the decrease of crimes in the metropolis. As of March 2015 Metro Manila’s crime rate
is down by 50%. From an average of 919 crimes reported weekly,
it has gone down to 412. Recorded robberies and theft also decreased
by 63 in just a month. All the 159 police community precincts of
Metro Manila will be using the electronic blotter system in recording crimes starting
June 2015.The Bureau of Fire Protection National Capital Region provides fire protection and
technical rescue as well as emergency medical services to the metropolis. It is broadly organized into five firefighting
districts: Manila, Quezon City, District II, District III and District IV. The headquarters of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines is located at Camp Aguinaldo, along with the Department of National Defense,
in Murphy, Quezon City. Aside from Camp Aguinaldo, other military
bases situated in the region are Camp Atienza and Fort Bonifacio. The Philippine Army has their headquarters
at Fort Bonifacio, Taguig. The Villamor Air Base in Ninoy Aquino International
Airport is the home to the headquarters of the Philippine Air Force while the headquarters
of the Philippine Navy is located at Roxas Boulevard, Malate, Manila. The Philippine Coast Guard is headquartered
at Port Area (Manila South Harbor), City of Manila.Its Coast Guard NCR District also has
its headquarters in the city and has another Coast Guard Station in Pasig. It also has a base in Taguig and maintains
several detachments located in Navotas, Parañaque, Tangos, Vitas, Manila North Harbor, Manila
South Harbor and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.In 2012, the AFP Joint Task Force-National
Capital Region was launched to ensure peace and stability in Metro Manila, bearing the
same function of the deactivated National Capital Regional Command, although it operates
on a much smaller size than its predecessor.==Infrastructure=====
Transportation===According to the Land Transportation Franchising
and Regulatory Board, public ridership in Metro Manila composes of the following: 46%
of the people go around by jeepneys, 32% by private vehicle, 14% by bus, and 8% use the
railway system. Transportation development in Metro Manila
follows the Metro Manila Dream Plan, which consists of building short-term to long-term
infrastructure lasting up to 2030 and addressing its issues on traffic, land use and environment.====Roads and highways====The roads of Metro Manila is built around
the City of Manila. Roads are classified as local, national or
subdivision roads. There are ten radial roads branching out from
the city. Also there are five circumferential roads
forming a series of concentric semi-circular arcs around Manila. The circumferential and radial roads are systems
of interconnected roads, bridges and highways. A problem with the circumferential roads are
the missing road links. These are the roads that are not constructed
(yet) to give way for development due to Metro Manila’s rapid urbanization. The metropolis is resolving this problem through
the completion of missing road links or through the construction of connector roads. An important circumferential road is the Circumferential
Road 4, the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more popularly known as EDSA. It traverses the cities of Pasay, Makati,
Mandaluyong, Quezon City and Caloocan. MRT Line 3 follows the alignment of EDSA,
from Taft Avenue in Pasay up to TriNoma, terminating before it reaches Caloocan. Circumferential Road 5 serves the people near
the regional limits of Metro Manila and also serves as an alternate route for Circumferential
Road 4. Prominent radial road include the Radial Road
1, composed of Roxas Boulevard and the Manila-Cavite Expressway (Coastal Road) that connects Metro
Manila to Cavite, Radial Road 3 or the South Luzon Expressway that connects Metro Manila
to Laguna, Radial Road 6, composed of Aurora Boulevard and Marcos Highway that runs up
to Rizal and Radial Road 8 or the North Luzon Expressway that serves as the gateway to the
north. The radial and circumferential road system
are being supplanted by a new numbered highway system implemented by the Department of Public
Works and Highways, and new signage are being placed with its implementation. Expressways are being signed with numbers
with the E prefix. National roads are assigned 1 to 3 digit numbers,
except for those classified as tertiary national roads. The development of roads, highways and expressways
are based on the Metro Manila Dream Plan. Ongoing projects in the dream plan include
the rehabilitation of EDSA, Skyway Stage 3 and the construction of the missing road links
for the circumferential roads (e.g. Taft Avenue Flyover, Metro Manila Interchange Project
Phase IV).====Railway systems====Metro Manila has three rapid transit lines. The Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT)
operates the LRT Line 1 (Green Line) and the LRT Line 2 (Blue Line). On the other hand, the Manila Metro Rail Transit
System operates the MRT Line 3 (Yellow Line) which traverses EDSA. The Philippine National Railways operates
a commuter rail service in Metro Manila called the PNR Metro South Commuter. Its main terminal, Tutuban, is located in
Tondo. The most troublesome metro line is the MRT
Line 3 which has been plagued with frequent and severe disruptions. Line 1 has a weekly ridership of 560,000 people,
while Line 2 has a weekly ridership of 200,000. While in MRT Line 3 serves roughly 650,000
weekly. In February 2014, a total of 14.06 million
passengers took Line 1 while 6.13 million took Line 2.To improve rail transport within
the region, several railway projects were undertaken by the national government. The Metro Manila Subway (MMS) is slated to
start its construction in 2018 and was expected to be partially completed by 2022. MMS Phase 1 is expected to be completed by
2025. Currently, the MRT Line 7 (Red Line) is under
construction. When completed, it will connect Metro Manila
to the province of Bulacan. Furthermore, a Common Station, connecting
LRT Line 1, MRT Line 3 , the future MRT 7 , and the Future subway is planned, although
bureaucracy in the Department of Transportation and Communications, corporate feud and issues
related to its proposed location are hindrances of its construction. LRT Line 1 is planned to be extended up to
Bacoor in the province of Cavite. A second extension, the LRT Line 6, would
link Bacoor with Dasmarinas further along Aguinaldo Highway. The LRT Line 2 East Extension Project is on-going
while the proposed West Extension Project is in the planning stage. The east extension will connect Metro Manila
to the province of Rizal. The westward extension will increase connectivity
to areas of Divisoria and in Pier 4 at the Port of Manila. The West Extension Project will have an interchange
with PNR Tutuban Station, which may become the busiest interchange station in the region,
adding another 400,000 people from the current 1 million people Tutuban Center attracts.====Air====Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA)
is the only airport and the premier gateway in Metro Manila. It is the busiest airport in the Philippines. NAIA has four terminals: Terminal 1, Terminal
2 (which is exclusively used by the Philippine Airlines), Terminal 3 (the newest and largest
airport terminal in NAIA) and Terminal 4 (also known as the Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal). The other airport that serves Metro Manila
is the Clark International Airport in Angeles, Pampanga which is located 80 kilometers away.====Buses====
Bus franchises in the region are regulated by the Land Transportation Franchising and
Regulatory Board. The Express Connect Bus is the express bus
system that runs from its dispatch terminal in Fairview up to the central business districts
along EDSA. It aims to cut travel time substantially and
provide a faster, safer and more convenient bus service to commuters, who are usually
caught at the heavy traffic across the metropolis. A second express bus link from SM North EDSA,
Trinoma and SM Megamall to Makati City opened in December 2015, and by January 2016 was
the line on which, for the first time in nearly three decades, a double-decker bus traveled
on EDSA, to the delight of motorists, followed by a 3rd link, this time from Robinsons Galleria
to the Ayala Center complex in February 2016 and a 4th in March linking the Ayala Center
to the Alabang Town Center in Muntinlupa via the Metro Manila Skyway (and later to Ayala
Malls South Park). As of the present express buses also link
the Market Market mall and Circuit Makati to both the Nuvali residential township and
the Pacita Village complex in San Pedro, both in Laguna, in services launched in 2014 and
2017, respectively (plus additional services to the UP Town Mall in Quezon City and SM
Masinag in Antipolo City, Rizal), while intercity express buses have been in operation since
2015 to alleviate traffic on EDSA. Metro Manila will have its bus rapid transit
system operational by 2018. The 27.7 kilometer proposed BRT system will
traverse Commonwealth Avenue up to the Manila City Hall. The planned BRT system costs ₱4.9 billion
($109.5 million) and will have a fleet of 300 buses and 32 stations.====Ferry====The Pasig River Ferry Service run by the Metropolitan
Manila Development Authority is the principal ferry shuttle system of Metro Manila. It traverses the Pasig River from Barangay
Pinagbuhatan in Pasig to Plaza Mexico in Intramuros. Although it was referred to as a ferry, it
is more akin to a water bus. It has 17 stations, but only 14 are operational. Another ferry route called the Manila-Bataan
Ferry was launched on May 10, 2017 and traverses Manila Bay from the Bay Terminal at CCP Complex
in Manila to Orion, Bataan. A new ferry route known as the Cavite-Manila
Ferry Service that runs between Noveleta, Cavite and Intramuros was launched in January
2018.===Electricity and Water===Meralco is the sole electric distributor of
Metro Manila. It generates its power from the National Power
Corporation and other independent power producers in Luzon. The Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System
(MWSS) was responsible for the supply and delivery of potable water and the sewerage
system in Metro Manila. It was privatized in 1997 and the region and
its immediate surrounding areas was split into the east and west concession. The winning corporations provides the same
function of MWSS. The Maynilad Water Services took over the
west zone, which is composed of Manila (excluding the southeastern part of the city), Caloocan,
Las Piñas, Malabon, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay and Valenzuela. It also operates in some parts of Makati and
Quezon City. Manila Water operates on the east zone, comprising
the cities of Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Pateros, San Juan and Taguig. It also operates in large areas of Makati
and Quezon City and the southeastern part of Manila, which was excluded from the west
zone. For garbage hauling, the region spent ₱4.221
billion ($93.855 million) in 2013. Quezon City spent the most at ₱994.59 million
($22.115 million) while Pateros, NCR’s only municipality, spent the least amount of money
on garbage at ₱9.478 million ($210,747).==See also==
Outline of Metro Manila List of metropolitan areas in Asia
Greater Manila Area Imperial Manila
Mega Manila

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