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Mod-01 Lec-05 Social Change in India

Mod-01 Lec-05 Social Change in India


In the first few lectures we discuss the relationship
between population processes and society. And now, we will particularly focus
on population processes in India and the processes of social change in India. We have
to place population trends in a perspective we will first talk about social change. So,
today’s lecture is devoted to social change in
India, as such change is a reality and human society too experiences changes in different
domains from time to time; however, all types of changes are not covered by the term
social change which has a definite meaning in sociology.
Actually in society several types of changes are taking place simultaneously, there is
economic change which means change in say per capita income, change in distribution of income or change in indicators like contribution
of agriculture or industry to gross domestic product, there is purely political
change. Political change refers to change in
political setup like changes in population size, composition, distribution of population,
fertility, mortality, migration etcetera. When we talk of social change, it is not any
kind of change.
For sociologist, all society have a definitive structure which we define last time as some
total of all institutions of society means, some total of customs traditions, mose,
folkways, laws, enacted laws, customary laws, taboos, etiquette manners, fads and craze
etcetera built around certain core activities of society like family economy quality
education and so on. And only that kind of change, which changes social relationships
or expectation from different roles or institutions
or which changes norms, laws, customs, traditions, fashion, crazes etcetera that
is called social change. Social change refers to change in social structure,
thus change in per capita income if not accompanied by changes in social relationships
is not a part of this social change. So, you can have economic change, but no social
change you can have political change, but no social change. In china for example, after
the Cultural Revolution there was political change, but social change or cultural change
did not immediately follow from political change. And Mao had to create a climate for
creating cultural change in society. Similarly, in India there was political change
at the time of independence the English men left and Indians took over as Prime Minister,
president, chief ministers, bureaucrats and so on.
But there was no corresponding social change, one may argue that political change in
India produce social change, but social change is a different story and political change
is different. If you look back during freedom
struggle there was actually a debate between those leaders, who were more for social change
first? Doctor Ambedkar and people of that mind set were more for social change
first, while others Gokhle, Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru they wanted first the political change
and they believe that once we become independent then social change will follow.
Now, in todays lecture we will particularly talk about those type of social changes taking
place in Indian society, which may have bearing upon demographic changes. I say that
the relationship between society and population is still in infancy and there is not more
to be understood. We will try to make a conceptual
relationship between social and structural changes and demographic changes
and first we will talk about, what kind of social changes are taking place in India? Sociologists have developed several concepts
to study social change in India, they are broadly the following type development and
social development, modernization, westernization, universalization, and great
and little traditions. For a long time sociologists and anthropologists in India
also used the concepts of parochialization and
universalization, and great and little traditions which were developed by McKim Marriot
and Robert Redfield in studies of Indian and Mexican villages. Among the above the two
most popular concepts are Sanskritization and Westernization.
So, we will specifically focus on Sanskritization and westernization, I will explain what
Sanskritization mean, who has given this concept? What is westernization? And then I
will also little bit talk about globalization and glocalization. Though other concepts are
familiar like development and social development usually, the term development is used
for improvement in productive capacity of an economy. So, if per capita income is
improving at a sustained pace or such forces have been created, such processes have
been generated in society which will eventually lead to improvement in per capita
income on a sustain basis, you will say economic development is taking place. Social development as a pose to economic development
includes, literacy, health indicators like life expectancy status of
women equity or inequity between the rich and
the poor urban and rural areas. And those who talk about the social development? They
say that ultimate goal of any development is social development. So, it has to be seen
whether economic development in a country is leading to social development or not. And
modernization refers to a process by which society is developed by using latest
technologies. So, modernization is related to technological modernization more than
anything else. So, development is economy social development
is social modernization is technological and this Sanskritization is purely social.
The concept of Sanskritization has been used to
explain the processes of cultural change in caste ridden society of India, it is a truism
that social change is caused by both endogenous
means internal and exogenous means external factors. Sanskritization concept
was developed to show the processes of change in Indian society which arise largely due
to endogenous causes means, its own causes internal causes; internal I cannot give you
the word contradiction because that word is smells of Marxist or conflict theory of the
society. However, it must be noted that social change
occurs due to a large number of known and unknown factors and there effects are mixed
and confounded, some good and bad. It depends how you look at social phenomena?
It is not possible to attribute any one type of
change to any one specific factor. Now, let us look at the concept of snakritization. To quote M.N. Srinivas, M.N. Srinivas in his
studies of empirical studies of villages around Mysore gave this concept of Sanskritization.
And by Sanskritization he means, that it is a process by which a low Hindu
cast, or tribal or other group, changes its customs, ritual, ideology and way of life.
So, it can be change in anything, it can be change in customs which are practices rituals
religious rituals ceremonies ideologies, ideologies can be social, economic, political,
any ideology and way of life in the direction of a high and frequently a twice
born caste. You know that in India we divide all cast
or all social groups, into two categories, one
we call upper caste or twice born and another we call low caste or born once. Usually
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishas they are put in the categories of twice born and the others
the low caste are others means born only once. It is followed by a claim to a higher
position in the cast hierarchy. So, when somebody sanskritizes, customs, rituals,
ideology, way of life any one of them, two of them, or all of them, then this is done
with the motivation to improve once position on
the caste hierarchy. And it is followed by a claim to a higher
position in the caste hierarchy, than traditionally concealed to the claimant caste by the local
community. Such claims are made over a period of time sometime a generation or two
before they are conceded. This concept of Sanskritization given by Srinivas
is an interesting concept, for beginner it can be a bit complex. So, let me explain
this with help of some diagrams, you see according to Srinivas caste is an interesting
phenomena, caste is not Varna by the way. Indian society has traditionally been divided
into four Varnas Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisha, and Shudras. But the number of; and
the number of caste is not four, the number of caste runs into thousands. In India if
you innumerate all possible caste which have existed ever or which are existing today,
there lot of fusion, fission in caste. But if you
add all the caste groups of India, perhaps their number will be more than 50000 and there
is a caste structure. .
The interesting part of caste structure is, that in any region first we must understand
that caste is a regional phenomenon, which means
that the caste which are found in region one may not, will be found in other regions
or their positions in the hierarchy may be quite different. You know? People belonging
to Tamilnadu may not have ever heard the name of certain caste which exists in Uttarpradesh.
If somebody a traveler come from Andraprdesh and goes to a village of Uttarpradesh
and somebody; the first thing somebody will ask? To a stranger in India
is, what is your caste? And he says that I am
Kama. Now, the people of Uttarpradesh would not
understand what Kama is? Because there is no caste of Kama in Uttarpradesh, may be a
remote area of Uttarpradesh which are uninfluenced by urban culture. In Uttarpradesh
or in Bihar people may not have even heard the titles of caste like Reddys or Vaniar
etcetera etcetera. So, it is a local thing here, caste is endogamous basically endogamous
cast is basically an endogamous group marrying within. There may be other associations,
there may be some concepts of purity and pollution associated with this, there
may be some concept of occupational association, there may be various types of
restrictions on mixing, there may be many other things.
There may be organization of a caste leadership and jurisdiction some region some area
in which laws of a particular caste apply and therefore, it is a regional phenomenal.
But what is interesting is? That in all the region,
there are some caste which are at the top and
there are some caste which are considered to be at the bottom say C infinity at the
top and C zero at the bottom, in between there
are a large a number of caste. In some regions or in some villages there may be 5, in some
villages there may be 10, in some villages there number may go up to say 20 or 25, 25
caste here, and there is a hierarchy. You can arrange all the cast groups in region,
one in a hierarchical manner means there are some caste, which are above the other
caste? And there is some caste, which is at the
top? Say C infinity and bottom C zero to use algebra like expression. Now, there is
another region; region 2 and here also, there is a caste at the top C dash infinity and
a caste at the bottom C 0 dash and again in
it will in between there are 50 caste which are
arrays hierarchically again hierarchies important. One interesting aspect of caste system was,
that this hierarchy; this hierarchy was always fluid means the hierarchy was not well defined
or the no sense of high or low were said that they were not equally acceptable to all
caste of the region. They are like if there is a
caste of Jats and another caste of Chauhan both of them are living in the same region,
there are several districts in western UP, where? You have Jats as well as Chauhans.
Now, Jats will claim that they are superior to Chauhan and Chauhans will say they are
superior to Jats. So, there are claims, counter claims and in
between there is lot of fluidity means the hierarchy is never a clear; clear-cut to understand
caste phenomena in India. It is very important to understand that cast is a regional
problem, it is a small endogamous unit, it is not Varna. And although there are some
castes at the bottom and some caste at the top,
but in between there is lot of fluidity, and there are claims and counter claims which
actually give rise to the process of Sanskritization. And Srinivas wants to say that
generally the notion is the Indian society has been a rigid society, highly stratified
society, a society that has remained unchanged for thousands of years, but that is not the
case. Indian version of social mobility has been
the model of social mobility in India took the
form of Sanskritization. The Sanskritization means that people at a lower level on the
caste hierarchy may, by emulating practices, believes, rituals, ideologies the terms used
by M.N. Srinivas claim a superior status on the caste hierarchy. And this can be done
in five years time, ten years time over a generation
sometime over several generations. So, an India to have a model of mobility the difference
between western model and Indian model of mobility is that in India mobility
was always mobility of the caste or a larger group not an individual phenomenal where in
the west the mobility is individual, but in India mobility was associated with groups
and cast. So, this is Sanskritization by Sanskritization
people belonging to lower caste lower social groups in society claim a superior status
on the caste hierarchy. This also means theoretically speaking, it becomes extremely
impossible to make an all India hierarchy of
all the caste of India. There something which commissions like backward commission in
India try to do lots of problems will arise, if ma; try to make an all Indian list of high
and low caste. It is quite possible that a caste
which is high in region one is at much lower level in region two a caste which is at lower
level here is at a much higher level in region two.
That make the caste and caste mobility your Sanskritization a complex phenomena. It is
a interesting part of history, if you read history of Sanskritization in India, know
there have been stances in which there were disputes
including violent disputes, riots. For something like donning a sacred threat that
people belonging to a lower caste after sanskritizing there lifestyle, they claim
a brahminically status that they are Brahmins or
they are part of twice born, that now they have sanskritize their lifestyle they are
part of twice born and they should be allowed to be
your sacred threat. Something which the upper cast would resist
and that leads to violent conflicts, ultimately these kinds of conflicts are resolved
through political intervention. And the king the monarch, the king will decide which
social group should be place where? Whether a particular social group has the
right to be your sacred thread or not, know it is
there are I do not want to spend much time on this issue alone, but there are lots of
instances like Nairs of Kerala, Nairs of Kerala are treated like Khatriyas, but there are
many Nair groups, which was originally part of, what we called? Shudras and because
these groups helped the king at some point of time during war of something. So, the king
declared that from now onward they will be called Khatryas.
This is how? Social different social groups in society moved up and down and this was
Sankritization, but it must be emphasize that in Sanskrtization although there is change of position of different caste, but there
will be no structural change mean, the concept of
high and low, the concept of hierarchy these things continue. I remember when I read? M
N Srinivas is social changes in India first time, though I was shocked to see a statement
that as a matter of fact in India, the real Khatriys were vanished about 2000 years ago,
none’s according to some historians where the last dynasties of Khatriyas.
After that anybody who captured power became a Khatriya? Then where also caste of
vats in Hindi we call Charan or Bhatt or in Rajasthan they are called Baivacha
genealogist and it was the work of genealogist to trace genealogy of different people. So,
when somebody belonging to a lower caste becomes the king, then the genea some
genealogist or all genealogist of that region may come forward to recreate a history of
that caste and somehow? Attire that caste to descendent of some mythological character
like they may say that they are descendent of lav or Kush or Bharat or ram or Laxman.
And this is how? That low caste or a Shudra caste person and his family are elevated to
the status of Khatriya. But this is all positional change and this does not lead to any
structural change in society. Now, from this Sanskritization theory for us students of
population, what is more interesting? The idea of emulation or idea of diffusion or
the idea that the people belonging to lower social
groups is start behaving like people of the upper group. So, what happens in the upper
group? Subsequently that defuses to lower sections of society.
So Varna is an all as I said, Varna is an all India framework and in this framework
human society is divided into four hierarchical people groups Brahmin, Kshatriya,
Vasiya and Shudra untouchables are outside the Varna system on the other hand caste
refers to hereditary endogamous groups which from a hierarchy each having a traditional
association with one or two occupations and cast groups maintained relations in terms
of purity and pollution. Through Sankritization that is by changing
customs rituals ideology and way of life towards upper caste people belonging to a
particular caste claim a superior status on the
caste hierarchy. This may or may not be granted, Srinivas maintained Sanskritization;
however, laid only to positional change means change in position of some specific caste.
Caste which were trying to Sanskritize their ideology and rituals and life styles, may
be learning of sanskrit language, may be becoming
vegetarian, may be taking to prayers, may be reading of Ranmhorit, Manas and Mahavarat.
Whatever and this mean that the perceived position of different caste which is, but
it do not affect the Hindu belief in cast hierarchy,
to be Hindu is to be belong to a caste with a
relative place in the hierarchical division. You some sociologist used to say including
Srinivas that Hindu religion is clearly associated with caste and the end of caste system
in India can also be the end of Hindu religion. No this is true strong statement and this
may not happen. Srinivas agreed that Sanskritization was only source of mobility in
Hindu society, initially observed that Sanskritization means simulating the life styles of
Brahmins, but later on he said that no he gave the idea of dominant caste.
And the dominant caste can be any dominant caste can be Brahmins, dominant caste can
be Kshatriyas, dominant class can be Vasiyas in certain regions, dominant class can be
scheduled caste or scheduled tribes having some areas dominant caste may be Muslims
also. And accordingly he developed different models of Sanskritization. Initially he started with the Bramhminical model of Sanskritization,
later on he talked about Brahmin model of Sanskritization, Kshatriya
model of Sanskritization, Vasiya model of Sanskritizaton and Shudra model. In some regions we have caste, we have classified
the Shudras are dominant people belonging to other class that region may start
ambulating, ideology, ritual, practices, food habits of the Shudras, there have been tribalization
in some area. The model of Sanskritization has been tribal model of Sanskritization.
In many parts of Uttarakhand for example, if we have certain tribes for
dominant it was found that migranes that the non tribal migranes from the plains, started
developing food habits of the tribal areas or
tribal people for better accommodation assimilation absorption in the new society and
this is something that can be called tribal model of Sanskritization.
The concept to dominant caste supplemented the concept of Sanskritization in some way.
At some places if the tribal groups were dominant, the other groups followed the tribal
concept and thus one can also speak of a tribal model of Sanskritization. Look why I am
putting lots of emphasis on Sanskritization and let me connect this Sanskritiztion to
something purely population or something related to demography. In one of our study
recently sensor data also show the same thing, sensor data has been showing that some of
the developed regions of country have the highest fall in juvenile sex ratio in the
recent times, means indicating increasing practice
of female feticide sex determination and female feticide.
Ashish bode developed a new acronym for that de moirvre’s states daily Haryana
western U P Punjab well these regions have more of this problem. Even in regard to
religious communities you may find that Jains some of the most educated and most
prosperous community in India have that least juvenile sex ratio 0 to 6 sex ratio females
by male sin age group 0 to 6. Our own study in some rural areas of Kanpur show, that the
practice of sex determination is more among the upper caste and upper classes.
The using the C prospective I can say, that what is found among upper caste and upper
class? Or like Celsius data shows what is found first in the double of regions of the
country? Will eventually diffused to other regions like today it is Haryana tomorrow
it can be Bihar or west Bengal and practice of
sex determination can diffused to those areas. Similarly, what is found first among
jains? Gradually it can diffused to other religions six already have a very low juvenile
sex ratio gradually this things can spread to
Muslims and to Christians also. And what is found among the upper caste upper classes?
We gradually diffuse to lower caste and classes if the Now, let us look at the concept of
Snakritization prospective is correct. For a long time Sanskritization work well.
The major factors in Sanskritization were, fluidity of political system, position of
the dominant caste, pilgrimage is from one place to another from end to end India was one homogeneous
culture. And doctor Ahmbedkar was also talked about India being a homogeneous
universal culture from end to end and he said that before the British came Into
India. Indians actually would not recognize the
deference between races whether somebody is Dravidians or Aryans.
Anybody who become the king? Is called Arya so, if doctor Ahmbedkar say that if
anybody you become the kings, become Arya, then you can see what kind of culture we
lived in? Then the position of dominant caste, pilgrimage, migration of values and beliefs
from great tradition; the term great traditiona little great tradition is used for textual
formal all India universal character of a religion, Ramayana, Mahabharata, balmiki’s
Ramayana, Mahabharata of Vedbyas, Gita, Manusmriti other yagaball other Smrities
Satryas their part of great tradition of India, great tradition of Hinduism in India.
And there are little little tradition in India, there are traditions folk tradition, folk
culture is specific to villages, specific to certain
communities, specific to certain regions had the
lower level. And there is always a migration culture from great tradition to little
tradition. So, d t s ideas practices of little tradition are explained using the concept
of great tradition and similarly, ideas of great
tradition are diffused to little tradition. There
was a time M N Srinivason himself talk about something like pitcher forth when I read
M N Srinivason’s book social changes in India first time.
And a I found references about pitcher forth even being an Hindu and a Brahmin I could
not understand, what is this pitcher forth? He was saying that this pitcher forth has
come from some kind of great tradition to little
tradition and it is spreading pitcher forth is
Karvachaut. Now, Karvachaut was a part of little tradition of India you do not find
reference to Karvachaut in Ramayana Mahabharat and Gita on in Smritis and Sastryas,
but today this Karvachaut or pitcher forth has become part of great tradition of India.
Thanks to media, thanks to news paper and television channel showing, celebration of
pitcher forth. You know this pitcher forth may be starting in some smaller part of
western U P has moved to all parts of India and may be seeing as becoming part of the
great tradition. So, that is another source of change then circular factors in also determine
the position of caste in addition to pollution and purity, if a caste is numerically large,
if a caste is more educated people, if people
belonging to certain castes are working is cities, in high quality jobs, in beurocrasy,
in army, in universities the status of that caste
is elevated. Then migration to new areas, when people migrate
from one place to another then the status of caste may go up or go down. Then
Bakti movements that established the idea of
quality before god that everybody is equal, thus the idea of equality among different
groups and caste. Now, after independence of the country the
issue of social mobility became more complex and cases of Sanskritization, de Sansktitization
as well as re Sanskritization were observed. De Sanskritization means that
somebody maintaining a distance from the upper caste. You know in Sanskritiztion there
is diffusion or there is emulation or imitation of upper class, in de Sanskritization
it is maintaining a distance or it saying that
we are more pure, that the upper caste are impure we are more pure.
So, Yogen sing in his book modernization of Indian tradition have mentioned several
instances from different parts of U P where people belonging to certain lower caste is
stop take accepting water from Brahminical caste this was de Sanskritization. And then
there is also re Sanskritization that may be there is a caste like Chatriyas first becoming
westernized and then becoming sanskritized after independence joining Bharti today we
call Bhartiya Janata party at that time there was junctions. So, they were re Sanskritized. So, all these processes of Sanskritization
de Sanscritization westernization was observed simultaneously.
Now, due to the policy of positive discrimination adopted by Indian government now, in
increasing number of groups are making claim to backward status rather than high status
that is also a source of one can say de Sanskritization. Some of them claim a backward
status in state matters and a forward status in a society. I see that this is not to hurt
sentiments of anyone, but also I have seen that there are certain castes like Kurmi when
a Kumi will write a matrimonial? In matrimonial
he will write that needed a groom or a bride for Kurmi Kshatriya person, but for
the purpose of interaction with the state they
are backward. So, in some domains you become backwards to
gain the benefit of the policy of positive discrimination and in social domain otherwise
you claim is a superior status. Yadavs and Kurmis they will say that they are decadence
of Luv or Kush and from that prospective they are upper caste, they are the Khsatriyas,
but for the purpose of gaining benefits from the state they are backwards. So, the situation
has becomes much more complex Yes I said that today I will talk about Sanskritization,
westernization, globalization and globalization, Sanskritization itself taken
so much time. So, let me be fast and come to the concept
of westernization. According to Srinivas this term westernization has been defined by several
people, but M.N. Srinivas in the same book social change in India define westernization
in a more précised way. It is the change brought about in Indian society and
culture both society and culture as a result of
over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels
technology institution knowledge and values. So, everything was changed.
Westernization means changed brought about by 150 years of British rule, the English
men the British had a different technology they had their own different institutions
of family education and so on. Their level of
knowledge in the so, called external world even Indians accept that in the external world
they are higher knowledge and values. Western values of success materialism as against
the value of its spiritualism in India. Now this westernization produce a number of
things which have demographic consequences humanitarianism, secularism,
equalitarianism, rationality and attack on untouchability these are all desires of westernization.
We do not find humanitarianism, secularism, equalitarianism, rationality etcetera
in pre British India having such high stature as you see them having today. Rationality and humanitarianism may be called
the hallmark of westernization. Srinivus recognizes the importance of local culture
in determining the nature of westernization. For many people it produce cultural schizophrenia
very powerful concept, but not in a pathological sense, normally when we say schizophrenia?
It refers to a psycho pathological state, a dual personality and
abnormality, but when Srinivas is using the term cultural schizophrenia? He is using it
he qualifies by saying it is in a non pathological sense, which mean that people
who became westernized in some domains of life mostly in office maintain tradition in
other domains for example, at home. Now, this is a case of cultural schizophrenia
what will you say that? This groom, going for his marriage may to become a part of his
marriage procession is he westernized? Or is he traditional? Perhaps he is both as per
as ritual are concerned, he is riding a female horse it is traditional and he is wearing
a modern jacket he is modern. Look people are becoming both modern and traditional
simultaneously and it is, but in different domains without any conflict. It
must also be noted that there were different western influences on different people of
India everybody did not rationalizes in same way because they came in contact of different
types of British people administrator, army men, traders, Christian missionaries.
Srinivas also showed that the movement from tradition to westernization was not linear,
that we start with tradition and then we become more and more western or more and more
modern. Westernization also produced revivalism, nationalism,
communism, casteism, vertical and horizontal solidarity between different
communities, heightened linguistic consciousness, regionalism and passionate
xenophobia among Muslims. Do not you see that television channels are promoting certain
traditional things I sometime wonder that things which my parents some my forefathers
considered to be superstitious part of belief systems only, not having any scientific, not
having any rational truth behind them like disasur or this vastu or different magical
and ritual phenomena tantra mantra. And this tv channels which is a modern phenomena
cable cable cable tv is promoting vastu, cable tv is promoting astrology when
you open some tv channel in the morning some Swamiji, some Shadhu or somebody is telling
you which mantra can solve your problems. What is this? Is this modernization
or traditionalisation? Not this is certainly not traditional use of tv channels for promotion
of religions this is not traditional, but this
is not completely western also, then what is this? This is westernization in the form
of acceptance of new technology leading to spread
of certain traditional believes like vastu and astrology and palmistry and so on, or
mantra or this things it is not a what is said?
That it is not a linear phenomena. Sometimes westernization can also produce
rational any matter from nationalization or nationalism or communalization or communalism
have been the product of westernization only the English education
that is why Gandhiji rejected English education and he believed that English education
in India can create all kinds of problems. Including problems of castism, communalism,
disrespect to elder elderly people rejection of tradition and. So, adornaning
of the basic values of love truth or religion and produce a strange kind of communalism
and groupism, linguistic conciseness and so on. In some context Westernization led to rejection
of the tradition while in others it led to mixing or combination of traditions and Western
influences. Westernized; westernization is accompanied
by urbanization, but the two are different thing. Urbanization refers to increase in
percent population in urban areas and not to
western values there may be urbanization, but no westernization. In Indian context we say there is rurbanization,
that Indian urban areas are basically rurban they are not urban towns and cities
in the sense, in which towns and cities of the
west have urban. And there are many pockets or sometime the whole town or city may
reflect the culture of rural areas, rural institution, rural believes and rural practices
and therefore, the term rurban rural plus urban.
Another thing which we must notice happening in India and which will affect our
population trends is globalization. The globalization or the world becoming one global
village know, is defined by different people by different ways, but basically it
means flow of resources capitals human and technology from one country to another.
In 20th century India both society and population have changed and India is experiencing
several processes of change such as demographic transition, industrialization,
urbanization, skill development, social mobility, legal changes and greater assertion of
autonomy. Among them effects of globalization and glocalization are very significant.
Globalization is economic, glocalization is cultural. The former concept refers to free flow of
labor and capital and glocalization to local changes in local cultural categories. Gloclization
has given rise to new meanings of tradition and modernization. Although Lee
defined glocalization as the simulation of modernity for the spread of commodity forms
in local cultures, students of sociology understands these terms well, it cannot be
isolated from the replacement of thought categories n the process of commodity glocalization. These processes of change have both functions
and dysfunctions. Functions are opening of demographic window we will talk about demographic
window in the next or after that next to next lecture improvement in literacy,
rapid expansion of education at all levels, flow of labor capital and technology across
international borders with emigrants sending a significant part of remittances. Increased
productivity of services and industrial sectors infrastructure development and new opportunities
caused by ageing of industrialized economies, empowerment of women and new ideas
of equality. But there are also, some dysfunctions, environmental
degradation, increasing marginalization among the agricultural laborers,
rising disparities, religious and community bigotry, trafficking of women, a
large number of cases of female feticide, violence against women and at the root of
many other dysfunctions an idea that all the emergent problems of the country are due to
history. This is a definition of globalization and
glocalization, this is from Lee I can skip this part
you can read it later from the slides. At the end of this I may say that so far sociologist
have focused on social change and demographers on demographic change. There
is a need to understand the link between the social and demographic changes. The issues are what are the impact of globalization
on demographic trends in the developing countries like India? Does demographic
transition promote forces on globalization and glocalization? Globalization
in the sense of transfer of capital technology and labor and glocalization in
the sense of transmission of cultures from one
part to another, but in such a manner that the local cultures find as though the products
delivered by forces of globalization are to meet or to satisfy the values of the local
culture, folk culture. Do not we find that there are when we celebrate
Dipaboli, we buy ideals of Laxmi, Ganesh and we buy crackers, we buy many things
which are traditional in nature not made by Indian industries or Indian artisions,
but by Chinese manufacturing companies this is glocalization. Chinese are sending
their ideals, toys, crackers, calendars and we
are buying them as though they are to serve our Indian culture, will demographic
transition, in developing country too will be followed by second demographic transition?
This a term which I will define little later when I talk about demographic transition in
particular, demographic transition essentially means change over from high fertility, high
mortality situation to low fertility, low mortality situation as associated with processes
of industrialization urbanization and economic
development. This is happened in the west and this is happening in the less developing
countries today. This is going to happen and the so called least developed countries also.
But there is second demographic transition, which is while first demographic transition
was considered to be something good for society the second transition is seen as highly
dysfunctional for the survival of mankind this has already happened in European countries.
In European countries Sweden, Denmark, Iceland now, you find people are shying away
from marriage, late marriage, no marriage, can you imagine? In India if a child is born
in our side wed law, the child he or she is considered
to be illegitimate child. And illegitimacy is not common in India, but the
countries like Iceland you will be surprised to know that as many as 70 percent children
born outside the wed law, this is second demographic transition. That loss of importance
of certain institutions like marriage, reproduction we may just not taking interest
in family and reproduction, people not marrying and dissociation between reproduction
marriage and family that is second demographic transition.
Right in the beginning I said that there are two sources of changes in an in any society
endogenous and exogenous. Sanskritization is endogenous, completely endogenous and I
gave the example of how practice of such determination and feticide is defusing from
upper caste and upper classes to lower caste, lower classes this is an example of
influence of Sanskritization. You can also find similar examples of migration of ideas
between great tradition and little traditions of India and these are kind of endogenous
changes. But changes brought about by westernization, globalization today and
glocalization resulting from globalization they are parts of changes produced by
exogenous factors, they are changes of exogenous type.
Then what is the relevance of globalization and glocalization for demographic trends?
Globalization, westernization globalization promoted westernization actually from M.N.
Srinivas point of view westernization count first globalization is only post 90s
phenomena, but something is common that common is travelling of ideas from the west
to the east. Now, due to westernization and globalization status of woman is rising our
woman are getting more education, they are competing with men for jobs. And in urban
areas there is live in relationships already there are many women, careerist women in
metropolitan cities who are not interested in marriage or child birth.
So, will this globalization, westernization, education of woman, new culture, travel of
ideas from western societies to our societies not create a situation, when we say second demographic transition also occurs in our
country, What are the lightly response of cultural communities? It is very interesting
sociologist must study this because cultural communities are not silent they are reacting
in different, sometime peaceful, sometimes violent manner to forces of globalization
and glocalization. Sometimes they want to take
off the best from glocaluization like, not to say anything good or bad about Baba
Ramdev, but Baba Ramdev is taking the good part of globalization.
He is buying the best machines hence scientific technology to promote ayurvedic
medicines. So, he claim that he is making the best herbal medicines in India using the
western technology and globalization has made that possible. So, there is in certain
domain there is acceptance of globalization, but he is also rejecting globalization and
westernization and wants people to come back to Indian values and tradition. There are
communities like chabs of jads in Haryana, who are reacting violently to globalization
westernization and glocalization. You know that they are making an issue that marriage
laws in India should be changed and marriages between gotrya’s should be banned that is
another kind of reaction to the forces of globalization. In the next lecture we will learn about the
emerging model of inclusive growth in India. So, this lecture shows that we are in a complex
situation and the how the state is trying to
create a more egalitarian society taking into consideration interests of all sections of
society.

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