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Modernizing Building Energy Codes to Secure our Global Energy Future

Modernizing Building Energy Codes to Secure our Global Energy Future


Sean Esterly Hello everyone. Iím Sean Esterly
with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and welcome to todayís webinar hosted by
the Clean Energy Solutions Center. We are very fortunate to have Didier Houssin, Yamina
Saheb, Benoit Lebot, and Marcel Alers joining us. This outstanding group of panelists will
be discussing the newly released publication ìModernizing Building Energy Codes to Secure
our Global Energy Future.î One important note of mention before we begin our presentation
is that the Clean Energy Solutions Center does not endorse or recommend specific products
or services. Information provided in this webinar is featured in the Solutions Centerís
resource library as one of many best practices resources reviewed and selected by technical
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Solutions Center training page within a few weeks. Now, we have an exciting agenda prepared
for you today. Let us focus on sharing the lessons learned on the design and implementation
of building energy codes with the objective of spreading best practices, limiting pressures
on global energy supply, improving energy security, and contributing to the environmental
sustainability. Before our speakers begin their presentations, I want to provide a short
informative overview of the Clean Energy Solutions Center initiative and then, following the
presentations, weíll have a question and answer session where weíll be able to address
some of the questions that youíve sent in and wrap up with the discussion and closing
remarks. So, this slide provides a bit of background
in terms of how the Solutions Center came to be. The Solutions Center is an initiative
of the Clean Energy Ministerial and then supported through a partnership with UN Energy. It was
launched in April 2011 and is primarily led by Australia, the United States, and other
CEM partners. Outcomes of that unique relationship support of developing countries through enhancement
of resources on policies relating to energy access, no-cost expert policy assistance,
and peer-to-peer learning and training tools such as the webinar you are attending today.
So, the Solutions Center has four primary goals. It serves as a clearinghouse of clean
energy policy resources. It also serves the share policy best practices, data, and analysis
tools specific to clean energy policies and programs. The Solutions Center delivers dynamic
services that enable expert assistance, learning, and peer-to-peer sharing of experiences. Then,
lastly, the center fosters dialogue on emerging policy issues and innovation around the globe.
Our primary audience is energy policy makers and analysts in governments and technical
organizations in all countries. We also strive to engage with the private sector, NGOs, and
civil society. A more key feature that the Solutions Center provides is expert policy
assistance. Itís the ìAsk an Expertî and itís a valuable offered through the Solutions
Center. We have established a broad team of over thirty experts from around the globe
who are available to provide remote policy advice and analysis to all countries at no
cost. In the areas of sustainable buildings, we are very pleased to have Cesar TreviÒo,
leader of the Mexico Green Building Council and representatives from the Climate Works
Global Building Performance Networks serving as our experts. If you have a need for policy
assistance on sustainable buildings or any other clean energy sector, we encourage you
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We also invite you to spread the word about this service to those in your networks and
organizations. We encourage you to explore and take advantage of the Solutions Center
resources and services including the expert policy assistance, subscribe to our newsletter,
and participate in webinars. Now, Iíd like to provide brief introductions
of our distinguished panelists. First up is Didier Houssin, director of Sustainable Energy
Policy and Technology at the International Energy Agency. Didier will be providing introductions
in discussing why buildings matter. Following Didier is Dr. Yamina Saheb who will describe
the evolution of building energy codes over time as well as policy pathways for making
effective building energy codes. Dr. Yamina Saheb is the head of the Sustainable Building
Center at the IEA. Following Yamina, we will hear from Benoit Lebot, a technical advisor
on climate change mitigation and adoption for the United Nations Development Program.
Benoit will present on challenges at the design and implementation stages and finally, we
will hear from Marcel Alers who is the global head of Energy, Infrastructure, Transport,
and Technology team at the United Nations Development Program. Marcel will provide concluding
remarks and with those introductions, Iíd like to welcome Didier to the webinar.
Didier Houssin Thank you very much Sean and good morning or good afternoon everyone. Iíd
like to welcome all of you to this launch webinar of the policy pathway on Modernizing
Building Energy Codes to Secure our Global Energy Future. This is a joint publication
of the IEA and UNDP. It has been gratefully supported financially by the Japanese Meiji
and the German Ministry of Economics and Technology and Iíd like also to point out that several
organizations have provided in-time contributions to this work. Next slide, please.
The IEA has, for a long time, identified building energy codes as the key policy instrument
to improve energy efficiency of buildings and as you can see on the screen, it is one
of our key recommendations among the twenty-five energy efficiency policy recommendations that
the IEA has established. The IEA and UNDP have partnered for this work. The objective
is to analyze current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes.
The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to highlight the importance of the built
environment in the low carbon and climate-resilient world. The IEA relies on forty years of experience
in the design and implementation of building energy codes to its member countries while
UNDP has over twenty years of experience in data and information from across the world
to provide technical support and policy advice to non-IEA countries. The IEA and UNDP decided
to work together on this joint policy pathway because sharing lessons learned between various
countries is critical to spreading best practices, improving energy security, and contributing
to environmental sustainability at global level. Next slide, please.
The building sectors final energy consumption has doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach
two thousand eight hundred million tons of oil equivalence driven by population increase
and economic growth worldwide. Under the current policies, global energy demand from buildings
is suggested to grow by an additional eight hundred thirty-eight million tons of oil equivalence
by 2035 compared to 2010. This is equivalent to the current energy demand of the building
sector in the US and China combined and most of this growth will result from the increase
in building energy use in non-IEA countries. In most of these countries, buildings currently
accountóin IEA countries, I mean, buildings currently account for more than forty percent
of the primary energy consumption. The residential subsector remains the largest consumer of
energy at global level and the nonresidential subsector has increased its share since 1990
especially under large emerging economies. Next slide, please.
Improving the energy performance of the building sector is crucial to ensuring long-term global
energy security and reducing energy expenditures. Growing energy consumption of buildings is
expected to exert heavy pressure on the global primary energy supply and less effective policy
action is taken. This relationship is illustrated on the slide by the dynamics of gas consumption
in IEA member countries. Natural gas is the main energy carrier, which is used for heating
in IEA countries. In 2010, gas consumed by buildings accounted for fifty-eight percent
of total final gas consumption. Gas imports have a significant impact on the balance of
trade of most IEA countries. For instance, at EU level, total gas trade deficit represented
more than forty percent of the total trade deficit with the rest of the world in 2010.
In non-IEA countries, the buildings energy mix still consists predominantly of traditional
biomass, which has serious consequences on health and environment, but globally and physically
for IEA countries, addressing increasing gas consumption of the building sector would have
a very positive impact in terms of energy security. Next, please.
The building sector is also a key component of the global economy. It accounted for eight
percent of global GDP in 2010 and in most IEA countries where the buildingís renewal
rate is less than one percent, the building sector will also continue to play a major
economic role if ambitious energy renovation plans are developed and implemented. Such
plans would engage various market actors in a green growth strategy and contribute very
significantly to job creation. Such plans would also boost innovation, enhance competitiveness,
and create new business opportunities for local industry. Ambitious renovation plans
would also increase governmentís income through direct and indirect taxation and this, for
a long time as the net employment affect the buildings energy renovation, lasts for several
decades. Energy renovation of existing buildings will reduce household energy expenditures,
which in 2010 represented more than three percent of GDP in Germany and in Slovak Republic
as you can see on the charts and more than two percent in most other IEA member countries.
In the US, cost-effective energy or retrofits could save consumers thirty-two to sixty-four
billion dollars a year in energy cost or three hundred to a thousand two hundred dollars
a year for each individual family on average. Next slide, please.
The building sector is also at the heart of the climate challenges. Because of the extensive
use of fossil fuels, the building sector is currently a large contributor to CO2 emissions
at global level. Of course, CO2 emissions vary per country as you can see on the chart
according to climate conditions and according to the age of the building stocks and the
energy carrier, which they have used to provide energy services. As you can see Europe with
its cool climate and aging building stock has the highest CO2 emissions for the overall
building stock; however, CO2 emissions per capita in the EU are lower for instance then
in the US because of the smaller size of home. The transformation of the building sector
to low-energy buildings with reduced energy consumption and by expansion-related greenhouse
gas emissions and contributes to leavingóto helping to delay the lack in CO2-emmitting
infrastructure and thus, leaving the door open to a two-degree Celsius climate scenario.
It would also reduce the intensity of extreme weather conditions and their impact on public
life and health. To address the variety of challenges due to the building sector, policy
action is needed to curtail work in energy consumption of the global building stocks
and building energy codes has been identified as one of the key policy instrument to meet
these objectives. To grow more in detail about energy codes, Iíd like now to hand over to
Yamina who will take us to the best practices identified in the design and implementation
of building energy codes. Dr. Yamina Saheb Thank you Didier. Hello everyone.
Building energy codes is the policy instrument implemented in IEA countries just after the
oil crisis to tackle the energy consumption of their building stock. At the time, in the
seventies, we didnít have the knowledge that we have now on building science and computer
engineering so building energy codes were basically prescriptive. This means that we
were setting energy requirements for each building components individually. I mean for
walls and for windows and later on, for heating and cooling equipment and trade-off had been
allowed. This is the simplest way to set minimum energy performance requirements for the built
environment; however, itís also the most risky way to set minimum energy performance
requirement because this approach doesnít allow to take into account the interactions
between different building components and equipment, which may lead to lock the savings
potential for several details. In the nineties, with the progress made in building size and
computer engineering, IEA countries and some of BRICS countries moved from prescriptive
codes to model codes. What do we mean by model codes? Itís that we can model the overall
energy consumption of the buildingsóof each building individually considering the components
and the equipments that we are going to use. This approach has introduced and improved
the performance of the built environment; however, in this approach, the energy performance
or climate of buildings is relative to the reference building itself. In practice, this
means that we cannot set baselines when we use this approach and in practice also, small
buildings are penalized by this approach. More recently, five or six years ago, some
of the IEA countries moved from the model codes to overall performance code setting
minimum energy performance on this value for each building site in each climate zone. With
this approach, we can set baselines and we donít penalize any more small buildings.
Next slide, please. So, this approach is based on holistic design
of the buildings, but this is the best set or the first best practice that we have been
able to identify to set minimum energy performance requirements for the overall buildings in
a holistic way; however, the next step that it considers the OID infused or being caught
only is to follow the path that we described here to low energy buildings and these types
consist three different strategies. First, we reduce the energy needs. To reduce the
energy needs, we have to implement minimum energy requirements from the energy sufficiency
measures. By energy sufficiency measures, we meet, for examples, requirements from bioclimatic
designs principles and to do that, youíll see here in the second rule that you need
to go here beyond building energy codes and to consider land use policies to be able to
implement bioclimatic design principles. The second step is energy performance requirement
for the overall buildings and in addition to that for each building equipments and components.
This is where most of the building codes are. The third step is to supply withóto make
it mandatory to supply with renewable energy sources and the renewable energy could be
provided either from the building itself or from the neighborhood of the building. Next
slide, please. To be able to makeóto increase the stringency
of energy requirements of building energy codes, itís really important to adopt building
energy codes to the lifetime of the buildings. We know that buildings last long in most countries,
more than centuries in EU countries for example. Thatís why we need the long-term perspective
and the long economic and energy security perspective loads up to consider low discounts
rate and this is the only way to be able, when we look at it from the macroeconomics
perspective, to make energy requirements more stringent. Next slide, please.
Why the economicólong-term macroeconomic perspective is needed because as you see hereólook
at the blue bar, the light blue bar. You see that the building stocks, this is from the
residential sector in IEA countries at best if youíll renovate it every forty years.
In practice, we know that itís less than forty years in most countries. So, thatís
why if we need the opportunity to have the fourthówhen performing overall, this means
that at best, we will have these opportunities again forty years later and then, the second
step is of course cooling and heating equipments that we need to have an efficient as possible
using the best available technologies in our market and the last step is to have the most
efficient lighting and appliance product. Why this is the last step because, usually,
lighting and appliance products as you see here are new everyófor appliances, every
three to five years and for lighting, less than that. Next slide, please.
Now, in terms of the coverageóworldwide coverage of building energy codes, most countries or
I could say all countries over the world, when they start designing their building energy
codes, they first target new residential buildings. Then, they move to new nonresidential buildings.
Why? Because itís easier to implement energy requirements in new buildings than in existing
ones because we have to wait until they are renovated. We donít have yet any country
where the renovation is mandatory, at least the energy renovation and then, for the last
fifteen years, we have seen in IEA countries and some of the BRICS countries implementation
of building energy codes for existing buildings when they are renovated or when they did an
alteration of the building. What you see in this map is the worldwide coverage of building
energy codes based onóif the code is implemented on mandatory basis, these are the greenóthe
countries showed in green or when itís mixed mandatory and voluntary and where building
energy codes do not exist at all, these are the countries showed in grey. When we see
that, we may think that all the countries that are in green, they have no more work
to do. In practice, itís not the case because in all the countries, we need to make sure
that complianceówe check compliance to building energy codes in the sea. Unfortunately, compliance
data do not exist so we cannot assess how effectively codes are implemented even in
IEA countries. Next slide, please. After an extensive research and analysis of
building energy codes in IEA and non-IEA countries, we have been able to design this pathway for
effective and successful building energy codes. It includes all IEA policy pathway four stepsófour
phases, sorry, and for each phase, we included series of steps and actions for governments
to follow and we provided some tips based on the practices already implemented in different
countries. The steps designed hereóthe steps that you will be able to read in a few minutes
in the publication are notómay not be simple for everyone because policy makers, they placed
in practice a variety of challenges in the design and in the implementation of building
energy codes. I leave it to Benoit Lebot from UNDP to give us an overview of the main challenges
that come to each phase and how they overcome them. Thank you.
Benoit Lebot Good day everyone. I hope you can all hear me well. My name is Benoit Lebot
from the United Nations Development Program. I am based in the regional center in Dakar,
Senegal. As you may know, UNDPís main mission is to support human and economic developments
in developing countries and economies in transition. Engaging in low carbon and climate-resilient
developing parts is absolutely essential in todayís world. As we just heard, buildings
represent the very important and sometimes, the growing carbon footprints for both developed
and developing countries. For as such UNDP understanding, what are the good practices
to promote energy efficiency in the building sector is key; hence, this collaboration with
the IEAís secretariat to draw the lessons of promoting energy efficiency in the building
sector from the rich world. This graph illustrates the evolution between 1990 in green and 2009
in orange of the energy consumption of the building stocks in various IEA member countries.
As we can see, overall, the energy consumption of the buildings has decreased in 2009 compared
to what it was in 1990 despite the stock increase. This is the result of the successful implementation
of building energy codes. Building energy codes deliver when theyíre effectively implemented,
regularly effected, and well enforced. The blue line shows where the consumption of building
stocks should be or could be in 2015 with no technology if countries succeed in moving
to a low-carbon pathway compatible with maximum two-degree global warming. This gives us a
direction to go and this indicates that thereís still room for improvement and this includes
new programs and new policies to be implemented in the building sector, not only the new building,
but also on existing construction. The first message for us at the UNDP is that a similar
chart cannot be drawn today for non-IEA member countries. The reasons are simple. There is
a lack of data, there is a lack of baseline information, and there is low interest in
capacity to address energy efficiency in the building sector. Next slide, please.
UNDP approaches to provide policy, technical and financial support to governments for the
implementation of basic policy practice. Building capacity is one of UNDPís main roles in developing
countries for encouraging a low-carbon development, identifying the buyers to the promotion of
energy efficiency, and to develop activity to remove each of these buyers is our main
approach. Our second buyer that we have identified for this work for promoting energy efficiency
in the building is the fragmentation of the building sector. This is illustrated in the
drawing on the rightóon the left side. The building sector is comprised of wide diversity
of players ranking from national government to local government from building owners to
building occupants with their specific industry and a series of experts. So, this is another
lesson that we draw from UNDP member countries. Itís the importance and the benefits to involve
the stakeholders at the early stage of the planning phase of any program to promote energy
efficiency in buildings. An effective and continuous coordination between government
bodies and market players is the way we think we can address this fragmentation. The third
challenge when designing building energy code is the alignment of energy requirement with
other policy instruments typically, land use planning with also climate change policies
both adaptation and mitigation and of course, energy efficiency action plans, energy security
policy, and economic policies. We can think here about removing subsidies on some fossil
energy that greatly contribute to promoteóto create the commission for enhancing energy
financing the building sector. On the right part of the graph, you see the routine scheme
that has been introduced in one of our project in Tunisia, a project financed under the global
environment facility. The energy level was first developed to transform the markets of
appliances, but the same level is now being used to introduce minimum energy efficiency
requirement for buildings. We believe that the redundancy between energy efficiency policies
does not only pay. It also helps the general public and the policy makers to better mainstream
energy efficiency into the decision process. Next slide, please.
Of course, one of the major difficulties of any building codes like any policy is the
implementation. Policy makers from all over the world face a challenge of compliance checking.
This graph illustrates the various blocks to help the government in the process of compliance
and enforcement of building energy codes. Without a robust compliance mechanism, codes
like any other public policy can lose its credibility; hence, the importance of setting
compliance mechanism with full understanding of the sanctions and requirements. The sanctions
in question have to be strict enough to discourage this noncompliance and of course, compliance
should be assessed regularly during the design, the construction stage, and also, at the level
when the buildings are occupied finally by the occupants. The lack of compliance checking
is usually due to lack of finance and lack of expertise. Next slide, please.
One way to overcome the challenge described above, the lack of capacity, the lack of understanding,
the lack of know-how on to build energy-efficient buildings, can be overcome through demonstration
projects. So, it is very common in our project that we promote before and to help defining
energy efficiency building codes. We developed some project demonstration project. Demonstration
project consists in the design of pilot buildings where we include the energy efficiency measure
considering the building codes. Demonstration project represents the unique opportunity
to develop the baseline information the same as the data that we need. The energy consumption,
the cost of the energy efficiency measures, the performance characterized by local consumption
method, and so forth. This is also a way to develop a training material for the market
sectors that weíve been charged of the implementation of the building codes. The new IEA-UNDP publication
policy pathway contains different illustrations of the demonstration project and the different
programs that UNDP has led in developing countries. Thank you very much for your attention and
now, next slide for Marcel Alers. Marcel Alers Yes, thank you Benoit. On this
slide, youíll see a map of the world and in blue are the countries thatóin which UNDP
is currently or has been working with the countries to help them put in place energy
efficiency building codesóbuilding energy codes. Now, the important point here, which
I would like to draw your attention to, is the countries that are not blue, which as
you can see is most countries. Really, there are big gaps in Africa, Latin America, parts
of Asia where there is nothing yet. So, this is key to understand and in spite of all the
work that has been done, there still remains a lot of countries to be covered, about three-fourths
of the countries around the world. Now, in doing that, itís very important that we consider
and take into account the readiness of countries to undertake certain types of projects. Building
energy codes are after all fairly sophisticated instruments that are not all that easy to
pull together. Designing them is one thing, but as has been mentioned before, you still
have to implement them before they can have any impact and thatís really difficult. So,
in going about helping new countries and this is what UNDP obviously typically does with
our mandate to developing countries to try to learn from what we have learned in, for
example, the developed world like the IEA and countries and transfer this knowledge
and try to apply it to these new countries. So, in those cases where countries are not
fully ready yet perhaps to embark on full flash building energy codes, it may be necessary
to engage with pre-capacity building if you like to get them up to the level required
and we can tailor our projects to the conditions or the situations in a particular country.
Next slide, please. Now, on this slide, I would like to give a
brief overview with some web addresses and links to several initiativesóinternational
initiatives that are beingóyou know, that are ongoing and are focused on energy efficiency
and buildings. The importance of the building sector in reducing pressure on energy supply
and the impact of climate change as we heard is now well recognized at the international
level. Weíre not telling anything new anymore. So, apart from all the work that UNDP and
several of the other agenciesóinternational agencies are doing principally with help from
the global environment facility, thereís a number of other things going on. First is
the IEA sustainable building center, which has been created and established with funding
from the German Ministry of Technology and Economics that was done in 2011 and itís
entitled to be an international help for building energy efficiency policies and youíll see
the web link here on the screen. Another new type of climate financing are the so-called
NAMAs, the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions, which as I said is a new tool emerging
in the international climate negotiations and that can be used effectively to address
greenhouse gas emission reducing projects including improving the energy efficiency
of the built environment and thereís been one example already of such work and thatís
in Mexico. Now, this is just one site that is provided where one can find interesting
and up-to-date information, but there are others and you know, weíd be happy to provide
you with additional links if so required. Then, finally, there is the initiative of
the United Nations Secretary General with the so-called Sustainable Energy for All initiative,
which was launched in 2011, which as one of its three objectives has energy efficiencyóto
achieve energy efficiency and to double the rate of energy efficiency by 2013. An important
part of that solution is going to be energy efficiency in buildings as has been highlighted
before. Then, next slide, please. Okay. Then, this is really the final slide
as far as Iím concerned. As stated by Didier at the beginning of the webinar, the energy
consumption of the built environment is expected to increase in the coming years mainly in
the non-IEA countries, the countries where we particularly work because theyíreóand
itís very important to understand that thatís where mostómore than half of the building
stock that will be needed if between now and 2050 has yet to be built. Therefore, if we
are able to apply energy codes and energy efficiency measures right now, we can lock
in very important savings in terms of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. So, itís
really our challenge to make sure that these new countries can benefit to the extentóof
the latest available policy measures and technologies. Also, I would like to take this opportunity
to thank the IEA. Partnering with the IEA on this policy pathway was for us a great
opportunity to benefit for forty years of experience in the design and implementation
of building energy codes in the IEA countries and I would like to thank the IEA as a set
for this what we think was an excellent collaboration and also, I would like to thank the donors,
any donors that were involved in part of this work and all the experts and their contributions
and last, but not the least, I would like to thank the Clean Energy Solutions Center
for hosting thisótodayís webinar and giving us the opportunity to share the main findings
of this joint work of experts from the different parts of the world and I see thereís a healthy
attendance today at this current webinar. Then, the policy pathway, the document at
the presentation is now available. You can download from this web link that has been
posted here. You can also find additional resources on the IEAís website as well as
UNDPís website regarding either this currentórecent publication on sustainable buildings or any
other recent publications. Thatís really all I have to say. I would like to thank everyone
for their attendance and their interest and we can now open the floor for questions and
Iím going to give it back to the moderator to introduce that part of the webinar. Thank
you very much. Sean Esterly Alright. Thank you Marcel and
Iíd like to thank the rest of the panelists, Didier, Yamina, and Benoit for their outstanding
presentations. We do have some great questions from the audience that weíll use the remaining
time to answer and discuss. Again, you can use the ìquestionî pane on the right side
of the webinar to send in any questions to us and first question is ëThe IEA recommends
mandatory implementation of building energy codes worldwide, but is the implementation
status in IEówhat is the implementation status in IEA member countries?í
Didier Houssin This is Didier here. Thank you for the question. Actually, it is a good
question. Weíve tried in the IEA to track on a regular basis the implementation of our
twenty-five energy efficiency policy recommendations and energyóand building energy codes. This
is one ofóthen, the most important works probably for the building sector. So, what
weíve seen is that the implementation, of course, varies according the countryóaccording
to each country and also becauseóand also the way building codes are put together is
different. In European countries, in general, building energy codes have adopted on a mandatory
basis and whereby, in several countries, building energy codes are more previously voluntary
than mandatory at federal level. Itís the case once in the US or in Canada and in this
cases, itís up to each state or to each province to decide whether the ones who made these
provisions of the building codes mandatory at fair level, which means itís too difficult
to track, but the trend held over the last year has been to makeóweíve seen that more
and more states and provinces make provisions as mandatory, but of course, even if you have
the mandatory code, it doesnít mean that it is implemented on the ground and thatís
the key point. Itís how to check compliance and ensure that what is in the regulation
or in the legislation is implemented in the grounds and of course, some progress has to
be made everywhere. Compliance checking data do not exist and is quite difficult to check
even if some methodology progress has been made in various countries. We do hope that
theówe have the six sections on monitoring and evaluation within this policy pathway
and we hope itís going to be useful for IEA countries whether they have mandatory or voluntary
codes in improving in particular the monitoring and the compliance checking of their own building
codes. Thank you. Sean Esterly Very good. Thank you, Didier.
The next question I want to present to the panelists ëHow can codes be monitored for
compliance by actual energy consumption when we know the variability from one occupant
to another varies dramatically? If you can deal with the variability, how would corrective
measures be incorporated after construction is complete?í
Dr. Yamina Saheb Thank you for the question. This is Yamina. I will take this one. The
first thing that we need to know is that when we predict energy consumption of buildings,
we usually use engineering software. Unfortunately, itís really rough that the engineering software
includes inputs from social sciences. So, the only way to be able to modelóthe question
is mainly about the behavioral aspects and the userís pattern, the only way to be able
to break their model and userís pattern in the built environment is to conduct more researchósocial
sciences research to inform the software. This is the firstóthis is the reality that
we have now. With this then, what we could do I think now is when we predict energy performance
of the buildings, we need to consider a factorócorrective factor for userís pattern and this means
that our buildingówe need confirm that it will be performing this a bit less than what
it could perform from energy engineeringís perspective only within the calculation and
then, this is the way to avoid these issues of the userís pattern later on and then,
the second part of the question is about how to implement collective measures after the
construction is completed. If you remember the chart that Benoit shared on compliance
checking, we donítóit shows to think that we need to wait for compliance checking until
the building is constructed. If you do that, itís late. The game is over. You need to
check compliance at each stage of the design and the implementation and the operation of
the building. If you do that and if we do it correctly and if we do it on a regular
basis, what we need to give to the market is the signal that the governments are checking
compliance. We donít need to check each building individually. We need to check sample of buildings
on a regular basis at each stage and communicate compliance results. A very important point
is to be very open about compliance results and to communicate them and to have well-defined
and strong penalty. Thatís the only way to make us moving forward and each time a penalty
is implemented to communicate about the penalty and then, it will be clear that the government
is taking seriously the implementation of building energy codes. Any other questions
here? Sean Esterly Yes, thank you Yamina for that
answer. The next question from the audience is ëWhere can we get technical financial
support for developing or designing residential building codes and also pilot projects with
implementation plan?í Dr. Yamina Saheb I think this is a question
more for the UNDP. Either Marcel or Benoit can take this question. The IEA doesnít provide
this kind of support. All that we provide is sharing best practices. Thank you.
Benoit Lebot This is Benoit Lebot from UNDP. I must say that there is not a unique way
for a given country to develop a strategy for implementing building codes. We believe
that thereís an excellent context today to engage such a program. On one hand, there
is a UN initiative called Sustainable Energy for All and this UN Initiative calls for a
doubling of energy efficiency by 2030 and to achieve these targets the building sector
has to be engaged. So that is one important context under the UN Sustainable Energy for
All Initiative. Another context is what Marcel introduced as a NAMAs, Nationally Appropriate
Mitigation Actions, those are the measures that countries can implement to mitigate the
ongoing gas emission and we believe that building codes are a great part of that type of policy,
so this is the context. In terms of financing, there are so many available typically from
the global environment facility if a link is made between the energy efficiency building
code and greenhouse gas mitigation and if this link is made then money can be accessed
through the global and human facility. This is almost our daily work at UNDP and most
of the project we have been supporting over the past twenty years to promote energy efficiency
in building has been financed by the GEF. We believe that more money is to come on this
type of intervention through new carbon finance and climate finance, possibly the Green Climate
Fund. So this is aóin short, there is not a unique place where money can come but thereís
a whole context that is extremely favorable and once there is willingness and interestÖtypically
the UNDP is well blessed to have the country access the right funding for it.
Sean Esterly Alright thank you. Next question for the panelist is which are the barriers
most commonly found for the implementation of building energy codes?
Yamina Saheb Thank you. I think this is going to be shared question between the IEA and
UNDP. I will answer for IEA countries and I leave it to Marcel for the non-IEA countries.
In the IEA countries where as we said building energy codes have been implemented in most
of our countries on mandatory basis since the í70 so we already have baseline. They
are not good in all countries. They are not accurate in all countries but we have something
which is not the case in non-IEA country and then based on these baseline we already have
technical capacity, we are civil engineers and economists and technicians trained on
building energy code however there are not enough people trained even in IEA countries
because building the kind of function in the built environment is quite complex and how
to reduce it is also quite complex. So even in IEA countries we still need to build capacity.
I think the main issue in IEA countries now there are at least two issues that I see for
IEA countries. The first one is we have only three countries where building energy codes
are overall performance code and based on the strategy of the three pillars that Iíve
showed, energy sufficiency, energy deficiency, and renewable energy requirement and all other
IEA countries and we have twenty-eight, it means we have twenty-five countries where
we still need to move from model code to overall performance code and some of our countryís
building codes are still not mandatory up to that level. This is the challenge that
we have in our countries and then the common challenge in all IEA countries and they think
everywhere to all countries over the world is compliance checking as highlighted by Didier.
Compliance checking, we donít haveómost of the IEA countries were not able to provide
us with compliance data and if we donít measure whatís going on so we donít know in fact
whatís going on. So to summarize, I think there is also need in IEA countries to build
capacity to work the model approach and to put more emphasis on compliance checking to
basically inform the update of building energy code in the future. I leave to Marcel for
the specific challenges that UNDP and non-IEA countries need in the design and the implementation
of the building energy code. Marcel please. Marcel Alers Yes, thanks, Yamina. Okay for
developing countriesóI mean first of all energy efficiency in general and building
energy codes in particular, are really a process which is very complex. Itís very challenging
even in the most developed countries to properly design and after that to actually implement
and enforce compliance. Itís not easy. Typically, this becomes even more challenging in a developing
country context. I want to say that our very first so-called barrier through the adoption
of energy codes is simply a lack of awareness if not outright ignorance. People just have
not heard about it or only a very small number of people but in general itís not something
that people are commonly aware of, that is an issue first of all and that you can actually
do something about it. Second, thereís a serious lack of technical
capacity at all levels just to design these things but then also that you get it through
the legislative process, to get it properly implemented and all that, big problem. Benoit
mentioned already another barrier which is just a lack of information. We have no data
in those contexts. There is no reliable statistics any of this, very challenging. You often have
to start from scratch building your database to show that, ëOkay, this is what weÖí
just to know what we are consuming now, right now and to get the details of that and so
then see where are the main losses, how can you address, etc. Not available.
Compliance has been mentioned, the ability to actually enforce these codes, very big
problem. Most countries are not properly tooled to stand up even if you have say, at the central
level, at the national level, some entity, an outfit that designs these codes which can
be state of the art and all that but you know often compliance that has to be done at the
municipal levelówell a lot of the building, the permits are being handed out like the
inspection state base, etc., often does not exist, so you really have to start building
this. Another issue can be but often is finance. Even though itís well known that building
codes do lead to lifetime savings, still often some of these mergers will incur enough from
cost which is higher than going into lowest cost option. So finance can be a problem,
either the availability or the access to it. Technology is often not available or is expensive,
or is unknown. Worldwide, yes, a lot of the technology exist and is readily available
but not necessarily in all countries and often it comes from real work. Itís not available,
so you have to work on that or even if itís available we have no technicians that know
how to install it or have not been trained. Low-energy prices is very often a huge disincentive
to energy efficiency in general including the buildings. Energy can be heavily subsidized
and it is in many countries. So the lower the prices, the lower the attempts to try
to save energy or it lengthens your payback time, so again itís a thing but these are
very hard issues to deal with at a political level, often very political in nature. Then
there are issues like what we call the split incentive whereby the building owner hazard
or the construction or the company who constructs the building is not the same that subsequently
occupies it so whoever pays the energy bills not the same who has to incur the cost of
making the extra investments for energy efficiency measures. So here again this is a classic
example which is common, itís not specific to developing countries but itís also a big
issue in developed countries. I think this list is long enough so I will have it back
to the moderator for another question. Sean Esterly Yeah, thank you. So the presentation
shared the shift from component efficiency through building system efficiency. Which
government has found the most success in moving the building systems performance, whole building
approaches? Then the second part of that question is what has been the biggest barriers besides
compliance concerns but you already addressed that a little bit?
Yamina Saheb Thank you for the question. I will take this because Iím also involved
in my country and directly in shifting from model code to overall systems code. I will
include, I will come back to the barrier issue, I think the main barrier that we have been
facing and that all countries face is the shift that is needed in the mindset. I remember
six years ago, it was almost impossible in front to discuss with market officers involving
the building sector and with those involved in the design of the building energy code
about overall performance code and from that minimum energy performance for each building
site and each climate zone that goes before 2007. I will give you the first experience
because itís the one that I well, what happened is that in 2007 we had an important environmental
concern in Paris and all market officers were involved in the discussion about energy consumption
impact of the building environment. As a result of this discussion of having all the stakeholders
together learning to talk to each other, this is what was surprising is that construction
industry is not used to public service, but is used to talk to policy makers or for NGU,
etc. As a result of that the French institute in charge of the design of building energy
codes and they worked on their update for 2012, they designed overall performance building
energy codes from that performance for each building site and each climate zone and it
is implemented. What I may have to tell you that in the meantime during this same period
in Europe we have an update of the European directive for buildings and the European directive
for building stated that we have to move to performance building code to overall performance
code, so it was already in our regulation, in the European regulation and we had to implement
it and in the case of France when they updated their code they made itóthey adjusted it
to the requirement of the directive and at the same time during this period between 2006
to 2012 when the code was published we had the new label for building that we call low-energy
building label and this label was based on overall performance code and the requirement
that we have now in the building energy code is the one that was in this label so at that
time we had only few buildings, so we had five years, letís say five years of learning
code. All market officers learning on how to move from model code to overall performance
code and when the code was released we had no big issues for its implementation. Of course
you always have some complaining but it hasnít been a big deal from what I know. I think
from my perspective it will be easier in non-IEA countries where we have to start from scratch
becauseóespecially countries where we have to start completely from scratch where nothing
has been done yetóto start now working directly on overall performance code because we know
that this is the way forward and to avoid mistakes that we have been making in our countries
and looking at the same potential in these countries which will play a major role in
the overall energy security. Thank you, can we go to the next question please.
Sean Esterly Yes, thank you Yamina, the next question was regarding something that Benoit
stated that building energy use has gone down in IEA countries from 1990 to 2009 due to
a key point which was noted that was compliant and ultimately effectiveness of the building
energy code. Does UNDP or the IEA have any data on compliance rate with building codes
in either developed or developing countries? Benoit Lebot This is Benoit Lebot from the
UNDP. I am afraid that from our side we donít haveówe are not yet in which level where
we can have this data. We are still in the process of implementing building codes supporting
the country to move from first block of the building code and I leave to maybe Yamina
to compliment on the level of compliance in the IEA world about building codes. Over to
you Yamina. Yamina Saheb Okay, thank you Benoit. So the
slide that have been showed by Benoit shows that progress has been made in reducing the
primary energy consumption in the residential sector in IEA countries. This progress is
due to two reasons. In most of these countries be implemented energy efficiency policy for
buildings and for appliances and equipment at the same time and at the same time of course
we may have thought that we have so many technology progress made between 1990 and 2009. When
they said that we see that from energy consumption perspective, we see reduction in the energy
consumption but at the same time we cannot allocate at this stage at least we cannot
allocate these saving to the effective implementation of building energy codes only because compliance
data are notówell they said they donít exist, they are not aggregated at national level
and there are some data at regional level in new countries in some regions or some cities,
they are not unfortunately aggregated at national level. The only country where data so far
are aggregated at national level is China and in China the government decided a few
years ago, five years ago I think, to have the government officials rechecking the compliance
that has been done by local authority and then the aggregating data and they analyze
that but we have to be a little bit careful with the Chinese data. Itís not only about
having the data. Itís about having the right data. It doesnít mean because the paperworkóif
you say in paper that you are going to comply with the building code but in practice you
really comply. We really need to go through another slide that Benoit showed and the different
sets in the compliance checking. I do believe that in the future, progress will be made
in IEA countries and some of the BRICS countries in collecting compliance data. Thank you,
can we go to the next question please. Sean Esterly Yeah, the next question is, what
role city can play in achieving successful building codes.
Yamina Saheb Thank you. I will take this question. City play a major role in achieving low-energy
building stock, low-energy and low-carbon building stock. This is doable I think only
in very ambitious cities where we already have energy and carbon reduction target. Why?
Because if you have these targets at the city level this means that the land use policies
will include energy and carbon reduction target. This means that land use policies will be
adjusted to better consider bioclimatic design principle, if you remember in my slide where
it showed the three-pillar energy sufficiency and energy efficiency, renewable, you will
see that two times implementation of energy sufficiency measures and the slide for renewable
we needóthey are included in land use policies. So really the most ambitious cities in the
world in terms of energy and carbon reduction will be leading the world in terms of low-energy
and low-carbon buildings in the future. Thank you next question please.
Marcel Alers Sorry, can I jump in here just to add a few words to what Yamina just said.
This is Marcel speaking from UNDP. Just to emphasize this issue of the importance of
cities, we feel that itís actually absolutely criticalóthe of role cities to ensure that
these policies are being implemented. You can set standards at the central level as
I said earlier on but most of the implementation and compliance will occur at the city local
level and actually we see that often, the municipality especially the larger ones, the
largest cities can be critical. Itís pulling forward whereas at the central level where
there can be political barriers impeding progress, we can see some of the more progressive moves
happening at a more local level. For example we see this at the United States where sometimes
or very often actually at the regional or local level we see more progressive work happening
than what is being set at the central level. So I think cities are key at achieving this.
Sean Esterly Thank you. The next question from the audience was, it looks like market
stimuli are extremely important for the code that actually have any significant impact
on energy consumption of buildings. Do you have any best examples of this?
Yamina Saheb No, if we start with taxation, we will not go anywhere I think. The first
thing to do is to make building energy codes mandatory. We could use in countries implementing
building energy codes for the first time or when we are switching from model codes to
overall performance code when itís really needed, we could use incentive for a few years
but really the policy that would use the consumption is building energy codes and not the taxation,
so we donít know about any good practices and I donít think they exist actually. Thank
you, next question. Sean Esterly Yes. Are there any explanations
for the energy consumption growing in Spain and Australia?
Didier Houssin Okay this is Didier speaking. Iím going to take this one. I think this
is referring to the energy consumption at the building sector and housing and for these
two countries we saw an increase in cooling request and itís interesting to see also
that when we see heat waves happening it has an impact of course on energy demands so it
might be over the long term of an important impact of climate change increasing demands
for cooling in summer period of time. This link first maybe partly to global warming
and secondly because we see that sometimes the quality of appliances in terms of energy
efficiency is not really good so one that needs to be addressed also is the quality
of appliance that I use in heating as well as in cooling and in this policy pathway we
show that there are different levels, of course the global level and also the question of
quality of equipment needs to be taken into account. I like also to take the opportunity
to stress one point, we mentioned several time but it was difficult to track implementation
of building code but we shouldnít be misleading. It doesnít mean that even if itís difficult
to attribute specifically to building code some of the progresses that have been made,
weíve seen and we have a chart from this day, improvement of global level in terms
of energy efficiency of buildings in IEA countries and itís certainly to a large extent link
to building codes even if itís difficult to attribute in a very specific manner some
of the progress of the building code the lack of data doesnít mean that there is not a
very positive impact of these building codes. Thank you.
Sean Esterly Thank you. The next question has to do with bioclimatic and passive building
techniques and sustainable technologies, they point out that the emphasis is typically on
efficiency of cooling, heating, and mechanical systems but in countries with suitable climate,
thereís a perceivable lack of reliable technical data for such measures, the bioclimatic and
passive building techniques in building codes, how can this be addressed?
Yamina Saheb Thank you this is really good question and we see that in the last thirty
years the main focus has been true on improving the efficiency and mainly the technological
improvement of efficiency of heating and cooling system which is basically the second step
if you remember my three pillars. Basically most countries were two things, on the energy
efficiency part and they forgot about the first step which is the energy sufficiency
measures by using energy needs through bioclimatic design principle. What we need to have is
what I described is most advanced that exists already in the most advanced scope is to have
requirement on energy sufficiency method on bioclimatic design principle, there are now
indicators that allows to access how your building comply or doesnít comply with bioclimatic
design principle. I think this is the way forward and this is something that we have
to build for the future and itís not about data, it says about changing again the mindset
and starting where we should be starting reducing the energy need and working more at the master
plan level of the land use. We have land use policies to maximize the saving potential
through the orientation of the buildings and the natural or, what is free. Maybe Benoit
would like to add something about how to address this question in non-IEA countries. Thank
you. Male Speaker Yes indeed, what is interesting
in our work to promote low carbon buildings in the developing countries. In fact technologies
are known in the building sector to build building that are healthy and compatible with
the climate. What has come a difficulty is the modernity of the construction sector and
now many countries have forgotten the past habit of the ancestors to be with the climate
and take the case of building housing with clay or earth brick, this is a very interesting
solution to not only be comfortable in the new building but also to lower the energy
demand and this type of old technologies have been forgotten and sometimes in our work we
need to just force the stakeholders to just look at the past and at the old construction
and by the way there is some interesting lessons to be learned from the bioclimatic solution
that our ancestors knew because as the climate is evolving and weíve heard about heat wave
or there are floods, we also have to adjust building sector through the evolution of climate
and we believe that building codes not only should address climate change mitigation but
also our part of adapting the whole society and this is where we can also rely on bioclimatic
and yes we can use a modern instrument, modern tool but just looking back to the history
and the way of building and cities were build we can draw some very interesting lessons
for the future. Thank you. Sean Esterly Thank you. Next question is what
are the measures that the IEA and the UN take in order that the principles of sustainability
in a built environment are implemented in developing countries in order to avoid a huge
future load of CO2 emissions coming from the emerging metropolis both in order to create
market tendency towards more sustainable material selection avoiding the depletion of the non-renewable
raw materials? Yamina Saheb I think we leave this question
for our UNDP colleagues as itís more about non-IEA countries.
Marcel Alers Yes, thank you. I am here. Sorry I have to unmute myself. Yeah, this is Marcel
speaking. What are we doing, well what we have been saying here since the beginning
of this Webinar is a good example of the kind of stuff that we do to provide assistance
to countries and help them access available financial resources and in doing so are provide
them with technical assistance to be able to use this more advanced thinking and help
transfer that knowledge and those technologies to the developing countries. Now there are
certain international treaties, climate, negotiations framework where countriesóand most countries
are a member of that of ratifying those conventions. In doing so, they have taken obligations,
obligations to undertake some of these things. So typically then we place a heavy emphasis
on helping build the capacity at all the levels required to undertake, to design and implement
building codes. We also help to mainstream these considerations of climate change both
at the mitigation and the adaptation level into the economic development policies of
countries. So really to merge it with everything else that is happening in countries and make
it an integral part in the decision-making process to ensure that these questions are
being asked at the right time. I donít know Benoit if you would want to compliment some
of it. Benoit Lebot No need to compliment.
Sean Esterly Thank you. Weíll go on to the next question which is compliance with building
code seems to be a large problem and energy performance of new building is often unknown
or little investigated, what can or will IEA and UNDP do to increase the focus on compliance
of building codes both in IEA and non-IEA countries?
Didier Houssin Okay this Didier speaking, Iím goingóso to reply to this good question
and weíve already discussed it partly. First one of the problem is that for many countries
the building codes are decided at the federal or state level whereby the implementation
is very important at local level and all the city is important at the role of local stakeholders,
local authorities is also quite important in making sure that the regulation is actually
implemented on the ground. Again, I like to stress that the fact that the compliance data
is not already available doesnít mean that the codes are not implemented and of course
IEA countries have their legal system that ensure that such codes when they are mandated
they had to be implemented even if they donít collect just a big data for that. Itís one
of the points that we have addressed in the policy pathway the question of monitoring
and the question of improving data collection and making sure that compliance is a part
of the reflection how to put together a building code from scratch. Iíd like also to stress
the importance that each one of points that we make in the policy pathway to have a global
approach rather than a too detailed and prescriptive approach as it used to be the case and to
ensure compliance which you have a global approach, very important to involve all stakeholders
and to make sure that awareness going among local authorities and among policy makers
but also among the industry and the building sector at large about the importance of the
building code and about compliance issue. Again if you have involved stakeholders from
scratch then the compliance will be much easier to achieve on the ground. Thank you.
Benoit Lebot This is Benoit Lebot from the UNDP. I can also provide some complimentary
answer here. First of all this issue of compliance for us is also very much linked to the current
context. We believe that the context is really good now to engage the successful policy in
the building sector. There is the UN Sustainable Energy for All Initiative focusing the global
target of doubling energy efficiency by 2030 based on NAMAs, the National Appropriate Mitigation
Actions but countries are anchorage to develop and hooking energy efficiency policy to this
type of initiative can help. Especially on NAMAs we believe that CDM, Clean Development
Mechanism, and carbon finance has failed so far to deliver financial support to energy
deficiency in the building sector but we donít want to give up on this possibility and we
believe that the more a country will elaborate a strategy the more likely this country can
maybe obtain some financial support based on global energy facility money. There is
also money to come from the Green Climate Fund but possibly there will be some money
to be coming from some market-based mechanism, the future of CDM, and this is where linking
the compliance and the tool for compliance to this type of tool and new context will
be pushed. One element to make this happen is to include in the development of energy
sufficiency building codes a rating that can be then used not only for the compliance but
to support the whole policy. We quickly want to avert the example of [Indiscernible][1:24:57]
where there is a rating scheme for building that is very useful to introduce a minimum
energy requirement but also to encourage further steps. We follow carefully the development
of mandatory levying of energy performance of buildings in some IEA member countries.
If you go online, if you purchase an apartment or building in some IEA member countries you
have to have an energy rating and this type of tool helps the decision process and will
help also the compliance and final point, once you have rating scheme for example and
some implementation from some labeling, you can see, you can easily invent or put in place
some specific financial mechanism such as tax, physical incentive to maybe reward the
transformation to more energy buildings and this is where this whole sweep of decision
that has to be taken to make sure that compliance at the end of the day will be fully addressed.
Over to you moderator. Sean Esterly Thank you. We have time for two
more questions. Any questions that we donít address during the Webinar we will be emailing
to the panelist and theyíll get back to you as soon as possible to address those. So the
last one of the two questions is which countries are already running some energy efficiency
program for improving existing buildings at a national level?
Yamina Saheb I will takes this question because the issue of existing building is mainly a
challenge for IEA countries and some of the BRICS countries. In IEA countries we have
Germany running a national program to improve the energy efficiency of its existing stock.
The program is managed by ISW and itís one of the best practices that we have so far
in terms of energy requirementóstringency in terms of how to make a stringent energy
requirement implemented each time a building is renovated. However, with the German program
less than 1% of the building stock is patterned. So, the challenge is still huge. Far away
from Germany we have the UK that just implemented a new policy for the Green Deal. The Green
Deal is not as stringent as the German program intend of energy efficiency requirement but
the Green Deal from finance design is quite interesting and fortunately a good renovation
strategy has to be designed and this is what most of the IEA countries are working on now
because the Europeans adapted last year the energy deficiency directive that made mandatory
for European countries to renovate 3% every year of their public building owned and occupied
by example government. So I think we are in the learning stage but we have to speed up
because of the challenge of the existing building stock. Thank you. Next question please.
Sean Esterly Yes and the last question is during the implementation each of these modern
building energy codes requireódo each environmental building codes require an environmental impact
assessment? Yamina Saheb No, not really, I think that
the environmental impact assessment is the next step that will probably be there in countries
where this is already a clear target, the deadline for implementation of zero energy
buildings is already set. Why I think that it will happen in this countries because in
nearly zero energy consumption building, the share of the consumption of the inverted energy
is much higher than in non-efficient building, so I think in the future this will come up
but this is again something for the future. I think what we have to do now is to design
the energy building code to be overall performance and following based on three pillars described.
Thank you. Sean Esterly Alright thank you again to all
the panelists. Again if your question wasnít addressed during that question and answer
session we are out of time for that but the questions will be emailed to the panelist
and theyíll get back to you as soon as possible. Now before we end I just like to ask everyone
to take a quick survey but before we do that Iíd like to provide the panelist with an
opportunity for any closing remarks. Didier Houssin Thank you Sean. Just a few
words from Didier to thank UNDP colleagues for their participation to this panel and
more generally for a very fruitful cooperation with UNDP on this project and specific thanks
for Clean Energy Solution Center for hosting this Webinar, I know itís very early now
in the state and we do appreciate your efforts in putting together this Webinar, thank you.
Yamina Saheb This is Yamina. I would like also to thank our colleagues from the Clean
Energy Center Solution. Itís quite early for them. Thank you so much for this collaboration
on the last step of this project and I would like to thank our UNDP colleague and all the
experts from all over the world who contributed to this project and my last few words from
the IEA is to wish you successful and effective building energy code.
Sean Esterly Alright thank you again. Now for the survey, please take a minute just
to answer a quick survey on the Webinar you viewed today with three short questions for
you to answer and your feedback is very important to helps us know where we can improve. Heather,
can you please display the first question, thank you. The first question is the Webinar
content provided me with mutual information and insight.
Sean Esterly The next question. The Webinarís presenters were effective.
Sean Esterly The final third question is, overall the Webinar met my expectations.
Sean Esterly Alright, thank you everyone for answering this survey and on behalf of the
Clean Energy Solutions Center, Iíd like to extend a hearty thank you to all of our expert
panelist for their great presentations and on our attendees for participating todayís
Webinar, had a great audience and we very much appreciate your time and that I invite
our attendee to check the Clean Energy Solutions Center website over the next week or two if
you like to view the slide and listen to our recording of todayís presentations as well
as any previously held Webinar. We have a nice archive of those up there. Additionally,
you will find information on upcoming Webinars and other training events and we also invite
you to inform your colleagues and those in your network and solution center resources
and services including No Cost Policy Support. Please have a great rest of your day and we
hope to see you again at future Clean Energy Solutions Center events. This concludes our
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