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Smart grid | Wikipedia audio article

Smart grid | Wikipedia audio article


A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes
a variety of operation and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances,
renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources. Electronic power conditioning and
control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the
smart grid.Smart grid policy is organized in Europe as Smart Grid European Technology
Platform. Policy in the United States is described in 42 U.S.C. ch. 152, subch. IX § 17381.
Roll-out of smart grid technology also implies a fundamental re-engineering of the electricity
services industry, although typical usage of the term is focused on the technical infrastructure.==Background=====Historical development of the electricity
grid===The first alternating current power grid system
was installed in 1886 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At that time, the grid was
a centralized unidirectional system of electric power transmission, electricity distribution,
and demand-driven control. In the 20th century local grids grew over
time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the 1960s,
the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature and highly interconnected,
with thousands of ‘central’ generation power stations delivering power to major load centres
via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller
industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area. The topology of the 1960s grid
was a result of the strong economies of scale: large coal-, gas- and oil-fired power stations
in the 1 GW (1000 MW) to 3 GW scale are still found to be cost-effective, due to efficiency-boosting
features that can be cost effective only when the stations become very large.
Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves (either
the mines or wells themselves, or else close to rail, road or port supply lines). Siting
of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging
grid. Nuclear power plants were sited for availability of cooling water. Finally, fossil
fuel-fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically
possible from population centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it. By the
late 1960s, the electricity grid reached the overwhelming majority of the population of
developed countries, with only outlying regional areas remaining ‘off-grid’.
Metering of electricity consumption was necessary on a per-user basis in order to allow appropriate
billing according to the (highly variable) level of consumption of different users. Because
of limited data collection and processing capability during the period of growth of
the grid, fixed-tariff arrangements were commonly put in place, as well as dual-tariff arrangements
where night-time power was charged at a lower rate than daytime power. The motivation for
dual-tariff arrangements was the lower night-time demand. Dual tariffs made possible the use
of low-cost night-time electrical power in applications such as the maintaining of ‘heat
banks’ which served to ‘smooth out’ the daily demand, and reduce the number of turbines
that needed to be turned off overnight, thereby improving the utilisation and profitability
of the generation and transmission facilities. The metering capabilities of the 1960s grid
meant technological limitations on the degree to which price signals could be propagated
through the system. Through the 1970s to the 1990s, growing demand
led to increasing numbers of power stations. In some areas, supply of electricity, especially
at peak times, could not keep up with this demand, resulting in poor power quality including
blackouts, power cuts, and brownouts. Increasingly, electricity was depended on for industry,
heating, communication, lighting, and entertainment, and consumers demanded ever higher levels
of reliability. Towards the end of the 20th century, electricity
demand patterns were established: domestic heating and air-conditioning led to daily
peaks in demand that were met by an array of ‘peaking power generators’ that would only
be turned on for short periods each day. The relatively low utilisation of these peaking
generators (commonly, gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost
and faster start-up times), together with the necessary redundancy in the electricity
grid, resulted in high costs to the electricity companies, which were passed on in the form
of increased tariffs. In the 21st century, some developing countries
like China, India, and Brazil were seen as pioneers of smart grid deployment.===Modernization opportunities===
Since the early 21st century, opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic
communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become
apparent. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged
out and passed on to all consumers equally. In parallel, growing concerns over environmental
damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable
energy. Dominant forms such as wind power and solar power are highly variable, and so
the need for more sophisticated control systems became apparent, to facilitate the connection
of sources to the otherwise highly controllable grid. Power from photovoltaic cells (and to
a lesser extent wind turbines) has also, significantly, called into question the imperative for large,
centralised power stations. The rapidly falling costs point to a major change from the centralised
grid topology to one that is highly distributed, with power being both generated and consumed
right at the limits of the grid. Finally, growing concern over terrorist attack in some
countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised
power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets.===Definition of “smart grid”===
The first official definition of Smart Grid was provided by the Energy Independence and
Security Act of 2007 (EISA-2007), which was approved by the US Congress in January 2007,
and signed to law by President George W. Bush in December 2007. Title XIII of this bill
provides a description, with ten characteristics, that can be considered a definition for Smart
Grid, as follows:”It is the policy of the United States to support the modernization
of the Nation’s electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable
and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth and to achieve
each of the following, which together characterize a Smart Grid: (1) Increased use of digital
information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the
electric grid. (2) Dynamic optimization of grid operations and resources, with full cyber-security.
(3) Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable
resources. (4) Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources,
and energy-efficiency resources. (5) Deployment of ‘smart’ technologies (real-time, automated,
interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer
devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution
automation. (6) Integration of ‘smart’ appliances and consumer devices. (7) Deployment and integration
of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and
hybrid electric vehicles, and thermal storage air conditioning. (8) Provision to consumers
of timely information and control options. (9) Development of standards for communication
and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including
the infrastructure serving the grid. (10) Identification and lowering of unreasonable
or unnecessary barriers to adoption of smart grid technologies, practices, and services.”The
European Union Commission Task Force for Smart Grids also provides smart grid definition
as: “A Smart Grid is an electricity network that
can cost efficiently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users connected to it – generators,
consumers and those that do both – in order to ensure economically efficient, sustainable
power system with low losses and high levels of quality and security of supply and safety.
A smart grid employs innovative products and services together with intelligent monitoring,
control, communication, and self-healing technologies in order to: • Better facilitate the connection and operation
of generators of all sizes and technologies. • Allow consumers to play a part in optimising
the operation of the system. • Provide consumers with greater information
and options for how they use their supply. • Significantly reduce the environmental
impact of the whole electricity supply system. • Maintain or even improve the existing
high levels of system reliability, quality and security of supply.
• Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently.”A common element to most definitions
is the application of digital processing and communications to the power grid, making data
flow and information management central to the smart grid. Various capabilities result
from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids. Integration of
the new grid information is one of the key issues in the design of smart grids. Electric
utilities now find themselves making three classes of transformations: improvement of
infrastructure, called the strong grid in China; addition of the digital layer, which
is the essence of the smart grid; and business process transformation, necessary to capitalize
on the investments in smart technology. Much of the work that has been going on in electric
grid modernization, especially substation and distribution automation, is now included
in the general concept of the smart grid.===Early technological innovations===
Smart grid technologies emerged from earlier attempts at using electronic control, metering,
and monitoring. In the 1980s, automatic meter reading was used for monitoring loads from
large customers, and evolved into the Advanced Metering Infrastructure of the 1990s, whose
meters could store how electricity was used at different times of the day. Smart meters
add continuous communications so that monitoring can be done in real time, and can be used
as a gateway to demand response-aware devices and “smart sockets” in the home. Early forms
of such demand side management technologies were dynamic demand aware devices that passively
sensed the load on the grid by monitoring changes in the power supply frequency. Devices
such as industrial and domestic air conditioners, refrigerators and heaters adjusted their duty
cycle to avoid activation during times the grid was suffering a peak condition. Beginning
in 2000, Italy’s Telegestore Project was the first to network large numbers (27 million)
of homes using smart meters connected via low bandwidth power line communication.
Some experiments used the term broadband over power lines (BPL), while others used wireless
technologies such as mesh networking promoted for more reliable connections to disparate
devices in the home as well as supporting metering of other utilities such as gas and
water.Monitoring and synchronization of wide area networks were revolutionized in the early
1990s when the Bonneville Power Administration expanded its smart grid research with prototype
sensors that are capable of very rapid analysis of anomalies in electricity quality over very
large geographic areas. The culmination of this work was the first operational Wide Area
Measurement System (WAMS) in 2000. Other countries are rapidly integrating this technology — China
started having a comprehensive national WAMS when the past 5-year economic plan completed
in 2012.The earliest deployments of smart grids include the Italian system Telegestore
(2005), the mesh network of Austin, Texas (since 2003), and the smart grid in Boulder,
Colorado (2008). See Deployments and attempted deployments below.==Features of the smart grid==The smart grid represents the full suite of
current and proposed responses to the challenges of electricity supply. Because of the diverse
range of factors there are numerous competing taxonomies and no agreement on a universal
definition. Nevertheless, one possible categorization is given here.===Reliability===
The smart grid makes use of technologies such as state estimation, that improve fault detection
and allow self-healing of the network without the intervention of technicians. This will
ensure more reliable supply of electricity, and reduced vulnerability to natural disasters
or attack. Although multiple routes are touted as a feature
of the smart grid, the old grid also featured multiple routes. Initial power lines in the
grid were built using a radial model, later connectivity was guaranteed via multiple routes,
referred to as a network structure. However, this created a new problem: if the current
flow or related effects across the network exceed the limits of any particular network
element, it could fail, and the current would be shunted to other network elements, which
eventually may fail also, causing a domino effect. See power outage. A technique to prevent
this is load shedding by rolling blackout or voltage reduction (brownout).The economic
impact of improved grid reliability and resilience is the subject of a number of studies and
can be calculated using a US DOE funded methodology for US locations using at least one calculation
tool.===Flexibility in network topology===
Next-generation transmission and distribution infrastructure will be better able to handle
possible bidirection energy flows, allowing for distributed generation such as from photovoltaic
panels on building roofs, but also the use of fuel cells, charging to/from the batteries
of electric cars, wind turbines, pumped hydroelectric power, and other sources.
Classic grids were designed for one-way flow of electricity, but if a local sub-network
generates more power than it is consuming, the reverse flow can raise safety and reliability
issues. A smart grid aims to manage these situations.===Efficiency===
Numerous contributions to overall improvement of the efficiency of energy infrastructure
are anticipated from the deployment of smart grid technology, in particular including demand-side
management, for example turning off air conditioners during short-term spikes in electricity price,
reducing the voltage when possible on distribution lines through Voltage/VAR Optimization (VVO),
eliminating truck-rolls for meter reading, and reducing truck-rolls by improved outage
management using data from Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems. The overall effect
is less redundancy in transmission and distribution lines, and greater utilization of generators,
leading to lower power prices.====Load adjustment/Load balancing====
The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time. Although
the total load is the sum of many individual choices of the clients, the overall load is
not necessarily stable or slow varying. For example, if a popular television program starts,
millions of televisions will start to draw current instantly. Traditionally, to respond
to a rapid increase in power consumption, faster than the start-up time of a large generator,
some spare generators are put on a dissipative standby mode. A smart grid may warn all individual
television sets, or another larger customer, to reduce the load temporarily (to allow time
to start up a larger generator) or continuously (in the case of limited resources). Using
mathematical prediction algorithms it is possible to predict how many standby generators need
to be used, to reach a certain failure rate. In the traditional grid, the failure rate
can only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators. In a smart grid, the load reduction
by even a small portion of the clients may eliminate the problem.
While traditionally load balancing strategies have been designed to change consumers’ consumption
patterns to make demand more uniform, developments in energy storage and individual renewable
energy generation have provided opportunities to devise balanced power grids without affecting
consumers’ behavior. Typically, storing energy during off-peak times eases high demand supply
during peak hours. Dynamic game-theoretic frameworks have proved particularly efficient
at storage scheduling by optimizing energy cost using their Nash equilibrium.====Peak curtailment/leveling and time of
use pricing====To reduce demand during the high cost peak
usage periods, communications and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home
and business when energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when
it is used. It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by communicating
to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads. Examples would be a utility reducing
the usage of a group of electric vehicle charging stations or shifting temperature set points
of air conditioners in a city. To motivate them to cut back use and perform what is called
peak curtailment or peak leveling, prices of electricity are increased during high demand
periods, and decreased during low demand periods. It is thought that consumers and businesses
will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and
consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods.
This could mean making trade-offs such as cycling on/off air conditioners or running
dishwashers at 9 pm instead of 5 pm. When businesses and consumers see a direct economic
benefit of using energy at off-peak times, the theory is that they will include energy
cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction decisions and hence
become more energy efficient. See Time of day metering and demand response.===Sustainability===
The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable
renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power, even without the addition
of energy storage. Current network infrastructure is not built to allow for many distributed
feed-in points, and typically even if some feed-in is allowed at the local (distribution)
level, the transmission-level infrastructure cannot accommodate it. Rapid fluctuations
in distributed generation, such as due to cloudy or gusty weather, present significant
challenges to power engineers who need to ensure stable power levels through varying
the output of the more controllable generators such as gas turbines and hydroelectric generators.
Smart grid technology is a necessary condition for very large amounts of renewable electricity
on the grid for this reason.===Market-enabling===
The smart grid allows for systematic communication between suppliers (their energy price) and
consumers (their willingness-to-pay), and permits both the suppliers and the consumers
to be more flexible and sophisticated in their operational strategies. Only the critical
loads will need to pay the peak energy prices, and consumers will be able to be more strategic
in when they use energy. Generators with greater flexibility will be able to sell energy strategically
for maximum profit, whereas inflexible generators such as base-load steam turbines and wind
turbines will receive a varying tariff based on the level of demand and the status of the
other generators currently operating. The overall effect is a signal that awards energy
efficiency, and energy consumption that is sensitive to the time-varying limitations
of the supply. At the domestic level, appliances with a degree of energy storage or thermal
mass (such as refrigerators, heat banks, and heat pumps) will be well placed to ‘play’
the market and seek to minimise energy cost by adapting demand to the lower-cost energy
support periods. This is an extension of the dual-tariff energy pricing mentioned above.====Demand response support====
Demand response support allows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion
in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes. Eliminating the fraction of demand
that occurs in these spikes eliminates the cost of adding reserve generators, cuts wear
and tear and extends the life of equipment, and allows users to cut their energy bills
by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest.Currently, power
grid systems have varying degrees of communication within control systems for their high-value
assets, such as in generating plants, transmission lines, substations and major energy users.
In general information flows one way, from the users and the loads they control back
to the utilities. The utilities attempt to meet the demand and succeed or fail to varying
degrees (brownouts, rolling blackout, uncontrolled blackout). The total amount of power demand
by the users can have a very wide probability distribution which requires spare generating
plants in standby mode to respond to the rapidly changing power usage. This one-way flow of
information is expensive; the last 10% of generating capacity may be required as little
as 1% of the time, and brownouts and outages can be costly to consumers.
Demand response can be provided by commercial, residential loads, and industrial loads. For
example, Alcoa’s Warrick Operation is participating in MISO as a qualified Demand Response Resource,
and the Trimet Aluminium uses its smelter as a short-term mega-battery.Latency of the
data flow is a major concern, with some early smart meter architectures allowing actually
as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data, preventing any possible reaction by
either supplying or demanding devices.====Platform for advanced services====
As with other industries, use of robust two-way communications, advanced sensors, and distributed
computing technology will improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power delivery and
use. It also opens up the potential for entirely new services or improvements on existing ones,
such as fire monitoring and alarms that can shut off power, make phone calls to emergency
services, etc.====Provision megabits, control power with
kilobits, sell the rest====The amount of data required to perform monitoring
and switching one’s appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching
even remote homes to support voice, security, Internet and TV services. Many smart grid
bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also support consumer services, and subsidizing
the communications with energy-related services or subsidizing the energy-related services,
such as higher rates during peak hours, with communications. This is particularly true
where governments run both sets of services as a public monopoly. Because power and communications
companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it
has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to
cooperate. Some, like Cisco, see opportunity in providing devices to consumers very similar
to those they have long been providing to industry. Others, such as Silver Spring Networks
or Google, are data integrators rather than vendors of equipment. While the AC power control
standards suggest powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among
smart grid and home devices, the bits may not reach the home via Broadband over Power
Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless.==Technology==
The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing
and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations.
Integrated communications: Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response,
distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), energy management
systems, wireless mesh networks and other technologies, power-line carrier communications,
and fiber-optics. Integrated communications will allow for real-time control, information
and data exchange to optimize system reliability, asset utilization, and security.
Sensing and measurement: core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability, monitoring
equipment health, energy theft prevention, and control strategies support. Technologies
include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading equipment, wide-area
monitoring systems, dynamic line rating (typically based on online readings by Distributed temperature
sensing combined with Real time thermal rating (RTTR) systems), electromagnetic signature
measurement/analysis, time-of-use and real-time pricing tools, advanced switches and cables,
backscatter radio technology, and Digital protective relays.
Smart meters. Phasor measurement units. Many in the power
systems engineering community believe that the Northeast blackout of 2003 could have
been contained to a much smaller area if a wide area phasor measurement network had been
in place. Distributed power flow control: power flow
control devices clamp onto existing transmission lines to control the flow of power within.
Transmission lines enabled with such devices support greater use of renewable energy by
providing more consistent, real-time control over how that energy is routed within the
grid. This technology enables the grid to more effectively store intermittent energy
from renewables for later use. Smart power generation using advanced components:
smart power generation is a concept of matching electricity generation with demand using multiple
identical generators which can start, stop and operate efficiently at chosen load, independently
of the others, making them suitable for base load and peaking power generation. Matching
supply and demand, called load balancing, is essential for a stable and reliable supply
of electricity. Short-term deviations in the balance lead to frequency variations and a
prolonged mismatch results in blackouts. Operators of power transmission systems are charged
with the balancing task, matching the power output of all the generators to the load of
their electrical grid. The load balancing task has become much more challenging as increasingly
intermittent and variable generators such as wind turbines and solar cells are added
to the grid, forcing other producers to adapt their output much more frequently than has
been required in the past. First two dynamic grid stability power plants utilizing the
concept has been ordered by Elering and will be built by Wärtsilä in Kiisa, Estonia (Kiisa
Power Plant). Their purpose is to “provide dynamic generation capacity to meet sudden
and unexpected drops in the electricity supply.” They are scheduled to be ready during 2013
and 2014, and their total output will be 250 MW.
Power system automation enables rapid diagnosis of and precise solutions to specific grid
disruptions or outages. These technologies rely on and contribute to each of the other
four key areas. Three technology categories for advanced control methods are: distributed
intelligent agents (control systems), analytical tools (software algorithms and high-speed
computers), and operational applications (SCADA, substation automation, demand response, etc.).
Using artificial intelligence programming techniques, Fujian power grid in China created
a wide area protection system that is rapidly able to accurately calculate a control strategy
and execute it. The Voltage Stability Monitoring & Control (VSMC) software uses a sensitivity-based
successive linear programming method to reliably determine the optimal control solution.===IT companies disrupting the energy market
===Smart grid provides IT-based solutions which
the traditional power grid is lacking. These new solutions pave the way of new entrants
that were traditionally not related to the energy grid. Technology companies are disrupting
the traditional energy market players in several ways. They develop complex distribution systems
to meet the more decentralized power generation due to microgrids. Additionally is the increase
in data collection bringing many new possibilities for technology companies as deploying transmission
grid sensors at a user level and balancing system reserves. The technology in microgrids
makes energy consumption cheaper for households than buying from utilities. Additionally,
residents can manage their energy consumption easier and more effectively with the connection
to smart meters. However, the performances and reliability of microgrids strongly depend
on the continuous interaction between power generation, storage and load requirements.
A hybrid offering combining renewable energy sources with storing energy sources as coal
and gas is showing the hybrid offering of a microgrid serving alone.=====Consequences=====
As a consequence of the entrance of the technology companies in the energy market, utilities
and DSO’s need to create new business models to keep current customers and to create new
customers.=====Focus on a customer engagement strategy
=====DSO’s can focus on creating good customer
engagement strategies to create loyalty and trust towards the customer. To retain and
attract customers who decide to produce their own energy through microgrids, DSO’s can offer
purchase agreements for the sale of surplus energy that the consumer produces. Indifference
from the IT companies, both DSO’s and utilities can use their market experience to give consumers
energy-use advice and efficiency upgrades to create excellent customer service.=====Create alliances with new entered technology
companies=====Instead of trying to compete against IT companies
in their expertise, both utilities and DSO’s can try to create alliances with IT companies
to create good solutions together. The French utility company Engie did this by buying the
service provider Ecova and OpTerra Energy Services.=====Renewable energy sources=====
The generation of renewable energy can often be connected at the distribution level, instead
of the transmission grids, which means that DSO’s can manage the flows and distribute
power locally. This brings new opportunity for DSO’s to expand their market by selling
energy directly to the consumer. Simultaneously, this is challenging the utilities producing
fossil fuels who already are trapped by high costs of aging assets. Stricter regulations
for producing traditional energy resources from the government increases the difficulty
of stay in business and increases the pressure on traditional energy companies to make the
shift to renewable energy sources. An example of a utility changing business model to produce
more renewable energy is the Norwegian-based company, Equinor, which was a state-owned
oil company which now are heavily investing in renewable energy.==Research=====Major programs===
IntelliGrid – Created by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), IntelliGrid architecture
provides methodology, tools, and recommendations for standards and technologies for utility
use in planning, specifying, and procuring IT-based systems, such as advanced metering,
distribution automation, and demand response. The architecture also provides a living laboratory
for assessing devices, systems, and technology. Several utilities have applied IntelliGrid
architecture including Southern California Edison, Long Island Power Authority, Salt
River Project, and TXU Electric Delivery. The IntelliGrid Consortium is a public/private
partnership that integrates and optimizes global research efforts, funds technology
R&D, works to integrate technologies, and disseminates technical information.Grid 2030
– Grid 2030 is a joint vision statement for the U.S. electrical system developed by
the electric utility industry, equipment manufacturers, information technology providers, federal
and state government agencies, interest groups, universities, and national laboratories. It
covers generation, transmission, distribution, storage, and end-use. The National Electric
Delivery Technologies Roadmap is the implementation document for the Grid 2030 vision. The Roadmap
outlines the key issues and challenges for modernizing the grid and suggests paths that
government and industry can take to build America’s future electric delivery system.Modern
Grid Initiative (MGI) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),
the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), utilities, consumers, researchers,
and other grid stakeholders to modernize and integrate the U.S. electrical grid. DOE’s
Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) sponsors the initiative,
which builds upon Grid 2030 and the National Electricity Delivery Technologies Roadmap
and is aligned with other programs such as GridWise and GridWorks.GridWise – A DOE
OE program focused on developing information technology to modernize the U.S. electrical
grid. Working with the GridWise Alliance, the program invests in communications architecture
and standards; simulation and analysis tools; smart technologies; test beds and demonstration
projects; and new regulatory, institutional, and market frameworks. The GridWise Alliance
is a consortium of public and private electricity sector stakeholders, providing a forum for
idea exchanges, cooperative efforts, and meetings with policy makers at federal and state levels.GridWise
Architecture Council (GWAC) was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and
enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the nation’s electric power
system. The GWAC members are a balanced and respected team representing the many constituencies
of the electricity supply chain and users. The GWAC provides industry guidance and tools
to articulate the goal of interoperability across the electric system, identify the concepts
and architectures needed to make interoperability possible, and develop actionable steps to
facilitate the inter operation of the systems, devices, and institutions that encompass the
nation’s electric system. The GridWise Architecture Council Interoperability Context Setting Framework,
V 1.1 defines necessary guidelines and principles.GridWorks – A DOE OE program focused on improving
the reliability of the electric system through modernizing key grid components such as cables
and conductors, substations and protective systems, and power electronics. The program’s
focus includes coordinating efforts on high temperature superconducting systems, transmission
reliability technologies, electric distribution technologies, energy storage devices, and
GridWise systems.Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Project. – This project is a
demonstration across five Pacific Northwest states-Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington,
and Wyoming. It involves about 60,000 metered customers, and contains many key functions
of the future smart grid.Solar Cities – In Australia, the Solar Cities programme included
close collaboration with energy companies to trial smart meters, peak and off-peak pricing,
remote switching and related efforts. It also provided some limited funding for grid upgrades.Smart
Grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) – Located at University of California, Los Angeles has
dedicated its efforts to large-scale testing of its smart EV charging network technology
– WINSmartEV™. It created another platform for a Smart Grid architecture enabling bidirectional
flow of information between a utility and consumer end-devices – WINSmartGrid™. SMERC
has also developed a demand response (DR) test bed that comprises a Control Center,
Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS), Home-Area-Network (HAN), Battery Energy Storage
System (BESS), and photovoltaic (PV) panels. These technologies are installed within the
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Southern California Edison territory as
a network of EV chargers, battery energy storage systems, solar panels, DC fast charger, and
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) units. These platforms, communications and control networks enables
UCLA-led projects within the greater Los Angeles to be researched, advanced and tested in partnership
with the two key local utilities, SCE and LADWP.===Smart grid modelling===
Many different concepts have been used to model intelligent power grids. They are generally
studied within the framework of complex systems. In a recent brainstorming session, the power
grid was considered within the context of optimal control, ecology, human cognition,
glassy dynamics, information theory, microphysics of clouds, and many others. Here is a selection
of the types of analyses that have appeared in recent years. Protection systems that verify and supervise
themselvesPelqim Spahiu and Ian R. Evans in their study introduced the concept of a substation
based smart protection and hybrid Inspection Unit.
Kuramoto oscillatorsThe Kuramoto model is a well-studied system. The power grid has
been described in this context as well. The goal is to keep the system in balance, or
to maintain phase synchronization (also known as phase locking). Non-uniform oscillators
also help to model different technologies, different types of power generators, patterns
of consumption, and so on. The model has also been used to describe the synchronization
patterns in the blinking of fireflies. Bio-systemsPower grids have been related to
complex biological systems in many other contexts. In one study, power grids were compared to
the dolphin social network. These creatures streamline or intensify communication in case
of an unusual situation. The intercommunications that enable them to survive are highly complex. Random fuse networksIn percolation theory,
random fuse networks have been studied. The current density might be too low in some areas,
and too strong in others. The analysis can therefore be used to smooth out potential
problems in the network. For instance, high-speed computer analysis can predict blown fuses
and correct for them, or analyze patterns that might lead to a power outage. It is difficult
for humans to predict the long term patterns in complex networks, so fuse or diode networks
are used instead. Smart Grid Communication NetworkNetwork Simulators
are used to simulate/emulate network communication effects. This typically involves setting up
a lab with the smart grid devices, applications etc. with the virtual network being provided
by the network simulator. Neural networksNeural networks have been considered
for power grid management as well. Electric power systems can be classified in
multiple different ways: non-linear, dynamic, discrete, or random. Artificial Neural Networks
(ANNs) attempt to solve the most difficult of these problems, the non-linear problems. Demand ForecastingOne application of ANNs
is in demand forecasting. In order for grids to operate economically and reliably, demand
forecasting is essential, because it is used to predict the amount of power that will be
consumed by the load. This is dependent on weather conditions, type of day, random events,
incidents, etc. For non-linear loads though, the load profile isn’t smooth and as predictable,
resulting in higher uncertainty and less accuracy using the traditional Artificial Intelligence
models. Some factors that ANNs consider when developing these sort of models: classification
of load profiles of different customer classes based on the consumption of electricity, increased
responsiveness of demand to predict real time electricity prices as compared to conventional
grids, the need to input past demand as different components, such as peak load, base load,
valley load, average load, etc. instead of joining them into a single input, and lastly,
the dependence of the type on specific input variables. An example of the last case would
be given the type of day, whether its weekday or weekend, that wouldn’t have much of an
effect on Hospital grids, but it’d be a big factor in resident housing grids’ load profile.
Markov processesAs wind power continues to gain popularity, it becomes a necessary ingredient
in realistic power grid studies. Off-line storage, wind variability, supply, demand,
pricing, and other factors can be modelled as a mathematical game. Here the goal is to
develop a winning strategy. Markov processes have been used to model and study this type
of system. Maximum entropyAll of these methods are, in
one way or another, maximum entropy methods, which is an active area of research. This
goes back to the ideas of Shannon, and many other researchers who studied communication
networks. Continuing along similar lines today, modern wireless network research often considers
the problem of network congestion, and many algorithms are being proposed to minimize
it, including game theory, innovative combinations of FDMA, TDMA, and others.==Economics=====Market outlook===
In 2009, the US smart grid industry was valued at about $21.4 billion – by 2014, it will
exceed at least $42.8 billion. Given the success of the smart grids in the U.S., the world
market is expected to grow at a faster rate, surging from $69.3 billion in 2009 to $171.4
billion by 2014. With the segments set to benefit the most will be smart metering hardware
sellers and makers of software used to transmit and organize the massive amount of data collected
by meters.The size of Smart Grid Market was valued at over US$30 billion in 2017 and is
set to expand over 11% CAGR to hit US$70 Billion by 2024. Growing need to digitalize the power
sector driven by ageing electrical grid infrastructure will stimulate the global market size. The
industry is primarily driven by favorable government regulations and mandates along
with rising share of renewables in the global energy mix. According to the International
Energy Agency (IEA), global investments in digital electricity infrastructure was over
US$50 billion in 2017. A 2011 study from the Electric Power Research
Institute concludes that investment in a U.S. smart grid will cost up to $476 billion over
20 years but will provide up to $2 trillion in customer benefits over that time. In 2015,
the World Economic Forum reported a transformational investment of more than $7.6 trillion by members
of the OECD is needed over the next 25 years (or $300 billion per year) to modernize, expand,
and decentralize the electricity infrastructure with technical innovation as key to the transformation.
A 2019 study from International Energy Agency estimates that the current (depriciated) value
of the US electric grid is more than USD 1 trillion. The total cost of replacing it with
a smart grid is estimated to be more than USD 4 trillion. If smart grids are deployed
fully across the US, the country expects to save USD 130 billion annually.===General economics developments===
As customers can choose their electricity suppliers, depending on their different tariff
methods, the focus of transportation costs will be increased. Reduction of maintenance
and replacements costs will stimulate more advanced control.
A smart grid precisely limits electrical power down to the residential level, network small-scale
distributed energy generation and storage devices, communicate information on operating
status and needs, collect information on prices and grid conditions, and move the grid beyond
central control to a collaborative network.====US and UK savings estimates and concerns
====One United States Department of Energy study
calculated that internal modernization of US grids with smart grid capabilities would
save between 46 and 117 billion dollars over the next 20 years. As well as these industrial
modernization benefits, smart grid features could expand energy efficiency beyond the
grid into the home by coordinating low priority home devices such as water heaters so that
their use of power takes advantage of the most desirable energy sources. Smart grids
can also coordinate the production of power from large numbers of small power producers
such as owners of rooftop solar panels — an arrangement that would otherwise prove problematic
for power systems operators at local utilities. One important question is whether consumers
will act in response to market signals. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of
the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Investment Grant and Demonstrations
Program funded special consumer behavior studies to examine the acceptance, retention, and
response of consumers subscribed to time-based utility rate programs that involve advanced
metering infrastructure and customer systems such as in-home displays and programmable
communicating thermostats. Another concern is that the cost of telecommunications
to fully support smart grids may be prohibitive. A less expensive communication mechanism is
proposed using a form of “dynamic demand management” where devices shave peaks by shifting their
loads in reaction to grid frequency. Grid frequency could be used to communicate load
information without the need of an additional telecommunication network, but it would not
support economic bargaining or quantification of contributions.
Although there are specific and proven smart grid technologies in use, smart grid is an
aggregate term for a set of related technologies on which a specification is generally agreed,
rather than a name for a specific technology. Some of the benefits of such a modernized
electricity network include the ability to reduce power consumption at the consumer side
during peak hours, called demand side management; enabling grid connection of distributed generation
power (with photovoltaic arrays, small wind turbines, micro hydro, or even combined heat
power generators in buildings); incorporating grid energy storage for distributed generation
load balancing; and eliminating or containing failures such as widespread power grid cascading
failures. The increased efficiency and reliability of the smart grid is expected to save consumers
money and help reduce CO2 emissions.==Oppositions and concerns==
Most opposition and concerns have centered on smart meters and the items (such as remote
control, remote disconnect, and variable rate pricing) enabled by them. Where opposition
to smart meters is encountered, they are often marketed as “smart grid” which connects smart
grid to smart meters in the eyes of opponents. Specific points of opposition or concern include: consumer concerns over privacy, e.g. use of
usage data by law enforcement social concerns over “fair” availability of
electricity concern that complex rate systems (e.g. variable
rates) remove clarity and accountability, allowing the supplier to take advantage of
the customer concern over remotely controllable “kill switch”
incorporated into most smart meters social concerns over Enron style abuses of
information leverage concerns over giving the government mechanisms
to control the use of all power using activities concerns over RF emissions from smart meters===
Security===While modernization of electrical grids into
smart grids allows for optimization of everyday processes, a smart grid, being online, can
be vulnerable to cyberattacks. Transformers which increase the voltage of electricity
created at power plants for long-distance travel, transmission lines themselves, and
distribution lines which deliver the electricity to its consumers are particularly susceptible.
These systems rely on sensors which gather information from the field and then deliver
it to control centers, where algorithms automate analysis and decision-making processes. These
decisions are sent back to the field, where existing equipment execute them. Hackers have
the potential to disrupt these automated control systems, severing the channels which allow
generated electricity to be utilized. This is called a denial of service or DoS attack.
They can also launch integrity attacks which corrupt information being transmitted along
the system as well as desynchronization attacks which affect when such information is delivered
to the appropriate location. Additionally, intruders can again access via renewable energy
generation systems and smart meters connected to the grid, taking advantage of more specialized
weaknesses or ones whose security has not been prioritized. Because a smart grid has
a large number of access points, like smart meters, defending all of its weak points can
prove difficult. There is also concern on the security of the infrastructure, primarily
that involving communications technology. Concerns chiefly center around the communications
technology at the heart of the smart grid. Designed to allow real-time contact between
utilities and meters in customers’ homes and businesses, there is a risk that these capabilities
could be exploited for criminal or even terrorist actions. One of the key capabilities of this
connectivity is the ability to remotely switch off power supplies, enabling utilities to
quickly and easily cease or modify supplies to customers who default on payment. This
is undoubtedly a massive boon for energy providers, but also raises some significant security
issues. Cybercriminals have infiltrated the U.S. electric grid before on numerous occasions.
Aside from computer infiltration, there are also concerns that computer malware like Stuxnet,
which targeted SCADA systems which are widely used in industry, could be used to attack
a smart grid network. Electricity theft is a concern in the U.S.
where the smart meters being deployed use RF technology to communicate with the electricity
transmission network. People with knowledge of electronics can devise interference devices
to cause the smart meter to report lower than actual usage. Similarly, the same technology
can be employed to make it appear that the energy the consumer is using is being used
by another customer, increasing their bill.The damage from a well-executed, sizable cyberattack
could be extensive and long-lasting. One incapacitated substation could take from nine days to over
a year to repair, depending on the nature of the attack. It can also cause an hours-long
outage in a small radius. It could have an immediate effect on transportation infrastructure,
as traffic lights and other routing mechanisms as well as ventilation equipment for underground
roadways is reliant on electricity. Additionally, infrastructure which relies on the electric
grid, including wastewater treatment facilities, the information technology sector, and communications
systems could be impactedThe December 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack, the first
recorded of its kind, disrupted services to nearly a quarter of a million people by bringing
substations offline. The Council on Foreign Relations has noted that states are most likely
to be the perpetrators of such an attack as they have access to the resources to carry
one out despite the high level of difficulty of doing so. Cyber intrusions can be used
as portions of a larger offensive, military or otherwise. Some security experts warn that
this type of event is easily scalable to grids elsewhere. Insurance company Lloyd’s of London
has already modeled the outcome of a cyberattack on the Eastern Interconnection, which has
the potential to impact 15 states, put 93 million people in the dark, and cost the country’s
economy anywhere from $243 billion to $1 trillion in various damages.According to the U.S. House
of Representatives Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings, and Emergency
Management, the electric grid has already seen a sizable number of cyber intrusions,
with two in every five aiming to incapacitate it. As such, the U.S. Department of Energy
has prioritized research and development to decrease the electric grid’s vulnerability
to cyberattacks, citing them as an “imminent danger” in its 2017 Quadrennial Energy Review.
The Department of Energy has also identified both attack resistance and self-healing as
major keys to ensuring that today’s smart grid is future-proof. While there are regulations
already in place, namely the Critical Infrastructure Protection Standards introduced by the North
America Electric Reliability Council, a significant number of them are suggestions rather than
mandates. Most electricity generation, transmission, and distribution facilities and equipment
are owned by private stakeholders, further complicating the task of assessing adherence
to such standards. Additionally, even if utilities want to fully comply, they may find that it
is too expensive to do so.Some experts argue that the first step to increasing the cyber
defenses of the smart electric grid is completing a comprehensive risk analysis of existing
infrastructure, including research of software, hardware, and communication processes. Additionally,
as intrusions themselves can provide valuable information, it could be useful to analyze
system logs and other records of their nature and timing. Common weaknesses already identified
using such methods by the Department of Homeland Security include poor code quality, improper
authentication, and weak firewall rules. Once this step is completed, some suggest that
it makes sense to then complete an analysis of the potential consequences of the aforementioned
failures or shortcomings. This includes both immediate consequences as well as second-
and third-order cascading impacts on parallel systems. Finally, risk mitigation solutions,
which may include simple remediation of infrastructure inadequacies or novel strategies, can be deployed
to address the situation. Some such measures include recoding of control system algorithms
to make them more able to resist and recover from cyberattacks or preventative techniques
that allow more efficient detection of unusual or unauthorized changes to data. Strategies
to account for human error which can compromise systems include educating those who work in
the field to be wary of strange USB drives, which can introduce malware if inserted, even
if just to check their contents.Other solutions include utilizing transmission substations,
constrained SCADA networks, policy based data sharing, and attestation for constrained smart
meters. Transmission substations utilize one-time
signature authentication technologies and one-way hash chain constructs. These constraints
have since been remedied with the creation of a fast-signing and verification technology
and buffering-free data processing.A similar solution has been constructed for constrained
SCADA networks. This involves applying a Hash-Based Message Authentication Code to byte streams,
converting the random-error detection available on legacy systems to a mechanism that guarantees
data authenticity.Policy-based data sharing utilizes GPS-clock-synchronized-fine-grain
power grid measurements to provide increased grid stability and reliability. It does this
through synchro-phasor requirements that are gathered by PMUs.Attestation for constrained
smart meters faces a slightly different challenge, however. One of the biggest issues with attestation
for constrained smart meters is that in order to prevent energy theft, and similar attacks,
cyber security providers have to make sure that the devices’ software is authentic.
To combat this problem, an architecture for constrained smart networks has been created
and implemented at a low level in the embedded system.==Other challenges to adoption==
Before a utility installs an advanced metering system, or any type of smart system, it must
make a business case for the investment. Some components, like the power system stabilizers
(PSS) installed on generators are very expensive, require complex integration in the grid’s
control system, are needed only during emergencies, and are only effective if other suppliers
on the network have them. Without any incentive to install them, power suppliers don’t. Most
utilities find it difficult to justify installing a communications infrastructure for a single
application (e.g. meter reading). Because of this, a utility must typically identify
several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure – for example,
reading a meter, monitoring power quality, remote connection and disconnection of customers,
enabling demand response, etc. Ideally, the communications infrastructure will not only
support near-term applications, but unanticipated applications that will arise in the future.
Regulatory or legislative actions can also drive utilities to implement pieces of a smart
grid puzzle. Each utility has a unique set of business, regulatory, and legislative drivers
that guide its investments. This means that each utility will take a different path to
creating their smart grid and that different utilities will create smart grids at different
adoption rates.Some features of smart grids draw opposition from industries that currently
are, or hope to provide similar services. An example is competition with cable and DSL
Internet providers from broadband over powerline internet access. Providers of SCADA control
systems for grids have intentionally designed proprietary hardware, protocols and software
so that they cannot inter-operate with other systems in order to tie its customers to the
vendor.The incorporation of digital communications and computer infrastructure with the grid’s
existing physical infrastructure poses challenges and inherent vulnerabilities. According to
IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, the smart grid will require that people develop and
use large computer and communication infrastructure that supports a greater degree of situational
awareness and that allows for more specific command and control operations. This process
is necessary to support major systems such as demand-response wide-area measurement and
control, storage and transportation of electricity, and the automation of electric distribution.===Power Theft / Power Loss===
Various “smart grid” systems have dual functions. This includes Advanced Metering Infrastructure
systems which, when used with various software can be used to detect power theft and by process
of elimination, detect where equipment failures have taken place. These are in addition to
their primary functions of eliminating the need for human meter reading and measuring
the time-of-use of electricity. The worldwide power loss including theft is
estimated at approximately two-hundred billion dollars annually.Electricity theft also represents
a major challenge when providing reliable electrical service in developing countries.==Deployments and attempted deployments==
Enel. The earliest, and one of the largest, example of a smart grid is the Italian system
installed by Enel S.p.A. of Italy. Completed in 2005, the Telegestore project was highly
unusual in the utility world because the company designed and manufactured their own meters,
acted as their own system integrator, and developed their own system software. The Telegestore
project is widely regarded as the first commercial scale use of smart grid technology to the
home, and delivers annual savings of 500 million euro at a project cost of 2.1 billion euro.US
Dept. of Energy – ARRA Smart Grid Project: One of the largest deployment programs in
the world to-date is the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Smart Grid Program funded by the American
Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. This program required matching funding from individual
utilities. A total of over $9 billion in Public/Private funds were invested as part of this program.
Technologies included Advanced Metering Infrastructure, including over 65 million Advanced “Smart”
Meters, Customer Interface Systems, Distribution & Substation Automation, Volt/VAR Optimization
Systems, over 1,000 Synchrophasors, Dynamic Line Rating, Cyber Security Projects, Advanced
Distribution Management Systems, Energy Storage Systems, and Renewable Energy Integration
Projects. This program consisted of Investment Grants
(matching), Demonstration Projects, Consumer Acceptance Studies, and Workforce Education
Programs. Reports from all individual utility programs as well as overall impact reports
will be completed by the second quarter of 2015.
Austin, Texas. In the US, the city of Austin, Texas has been working on building its smart
grid since 2003, when its utility first replaced 1/3 of its manual meters with smart meters
that communicate via a wireless mesh network. It currently manages 200,000 devices real-time
(smart meters, smart thermostats, and sensors across its service area), and expects to be
supporting 500,000 devices real-time in 2009 servicing 1 million consumers and 43,000 businesses.Boulder,
Colorado completed the first phase of its smart grid project in August 2008. Both systems
use the smart meter as a gateway to the home automation network (HAN) that controls smart
sockets and devices. Some HAN designers favor decoupling control functions from the meter,
out of concern of future mismatches with new standards and technologies available from
the fast moving business segment of home electronic devices.Hydro One, in Ontario, Canada is in
the midst of a large-scale Smart Grid initiative, deploying a standards-compliant communications
infrastructure from Trilliant. By the end of 2010, the system will serve 1.3 million
customers in the province of Ontario. The initiative won the “Best AMR Initiative in
North America” award from the Utility Planning Network.The City of Mannheim in Germany is
using realtime Broadband Powerline (BPL) communications in its Model City Mannheim “MoMa” project.Adelaide
in Australia also plans to implement a localised green Smart Grid electricity network in the
Tonsley Park redevelopment.Sydney also in Australia, in partnership with the Australian
Government implemented the Smart Grid, Smart City program.Évora. InovGrid is an innovative
project in Évora, Portugal that aims to equip the electricity grid with information and
devices to automate grid management, improve service quality, reduce operating costs, promote
energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, and increase the penetration of renewable
energies and electric vehicles. It will be possible to control and manage the state of
the entire electricity distribution grid at any given instant, allowing suppliers and
energy services companies to use this technological platform to offer consumers information and
added-value energy products and services. This project to install an intelligent energy
grid places Portugal and EDP at the cutting edge of technological innovation and service
provision in Europe.E-Energy – In the so-called E-Energy projects several German utilities
are creating first nucleolus in six independent model regions. A technology competition identified
this model regions to carry out research and development activities with the main objective
to create an “Internet of Energy.”Massachusetts. One of the first attempted deployments of
“smart grid” technologies in the United States was rejected in 2009 by electricity regulators
in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, a US state. According to an article in the Boston
Globe, Northeast Utilities’ Western Massachusetts Electric Co. subsidiary actually attempted
to create a “smart grid” program using public subsidies that would switch low income customers
from post-pay to pre-pay billing (using “smart cards”) in addition to special hiked “premium”
rates for electricity used above a predetermined amount. This plan was rejected by regulators
as it “eroded important protections for low-income customers against shutoffs”. According to
the Boston Globe, the plan “unfairly targeted low-income customers and circumvented Massachusetts
laws meant to help struggling consumers keep the lights on”. A spokesman for an environmental
group supportive of smart grid plans and Western Massachusetts’ Electric’s aforementioned “smart
grid” plan, in particular, stated “If used properly, smart grid technology has a lot
of potential for reducing peak demand, which would allow us to shut down some of the oldest,
dirtiest power plants… It’s a tool.”The eEnergy Vermont consortium is a US statewide
initiative in Vermont, funded in part through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
of 2009, in which all of the electric utilities in the state have rapidly adopted a variety
of Smart Grid technologies, including about 90% Advanced Metering Infrastructure deployment,
and are presently evaluating a variety of dynamic rate structures.
In the Netherlands a large-scale project (>5000 connections,>20 partners) was initiated to
demonstrate integrated smart grids technologies, services and business cases.LIFE Factory Microgrid
(LIFE13 ENV / ES / 000700) is a demonstrative project that is part of the LIFE+ 2013 program
(European Commission), whose main objective is to demonstrate, through the implementation
of a full-scale industrial smartgrid that microgrids can become one of the most suitable
solutions for energy generation and management in factories that want to minimize their environmental
impact. EPB in Chattanooga, TN is a municipally-owned
electric utility that started construction of a smart grid in 2008, receiving a $111,567,606
grant from the US DOE in 2009 to expedite construction and implementation (for a total
budget of $232,219,350). Deployment of power-line interrupters (1170 units) was completed in
April 2012, and deployment of smart meters (172,079 units) was completed in 2013. The
smart grid’s backbone fiber-optic system was also used to provide the first gigabit-speed
internet connection to residential customers in the US through the Fiber to the Home initiative,
and now speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second are available to residents. The smart grid
is estimated to have reduced power outages by an average of 60%, saving the city about
60 million dollars annually. It has also reduced the need for “truck rolls” to scout and troubleshoot
faults, resulting in an estimated reduction of 630,000 truck driving miles, and 4.7 million
pounds of carbon emissions. In January 2016, EPB became the first major power distribution
system to earn Performance Excellence in Electricity Renewal (PEER) certification.===OpenADR Implementations===
Certain deployments utilize the OpenADR standard for load shedding and demand reduction during
higher demand periods.====China====
The smart grid market in China is estimated to be $22.3 billion with a projected growth
to $61.4 billion by 2015. Honeywell is developing a demand response pilot and feasibility study
for China with the State Grid Corp. of China using the OpenADR demand response standard.
The State Grid Corp., the Chinese Academy of Science, and General Electric intend to
work together to develop standards for China’s smart grid rollout.====United Kingdom====
The OpenADR standard was demonstrated in Bracknell, England, where peak use in commercial buildings
was reduced by 45 percent. As a result of the pilot, the Scottish and Southern Energy
(SSE) said it would connect up to 30 commercial and industrial buildings in Thames Valley,
west of London, to a demand response program.====United States====
In 2009, the US Department of Energy awarded an $11 million grant to Southern California
Edison and Honeywell for a demand response program that automatically turns down energy
use during peak hours for participating industrial customers. The Department of Energy awarded
an $11.4 million grant to Honeywell to implement the program using the OpenADR standard.Hawaiian
Electric Co. (HECO) is implementing a two-year pilot project to test the ability of an ADR
program to respond to the intermittence of wind power. Hawaii has a goal to obtain 70
percent of its power from renewable sources by 2030. HECO will give customers incentives
for reducing power consumption within 10 minutes of a notice.==Guidelines, standards and user groups==
Part of the IEEE Smart Grid Initiative, IEEE 2030.2 represents an extension of the work
aimed at utility storage systems for transmission and distribution networks. The IEEE P2030
group expects to deliver early 2011 an overarching set of guidelines on smart grid interfaces.
The new guidelines will cover areas including batteries and supercapacitors as well as flywheels.
The group has also spun out a 2030.1 effort drafting guidelines for integrating electric
vehicles into the smart grid. IEC TC 57 has created a family of international
standards that can be used as part of the smart grid. These standards include IEC 61850
which is an architecture for substation automation, and IEC 61970/61968 – the Common Information
Model (CIM). The CIM provides for common semantics to be used for turning data into information.
OpenADR is an open-source smart grid communications standard used for demand response applications.
It is typically used to send information and signals to cause electrical power-using devices
to be turned off during periods of higher demand.
MultiSpeak has created a specification that supports distribution functionality of the
smart grid. MultiSpeak has a robust set of integration definitions that supports nearly
all of the software interfaces necessary for a distribution utility or for the distribution
portion of a vertically integrated utility. MultiSpeak integration is defined using extensible
markup language (XML) and web services. The IEEE has created a standard to support
synchrophasors – C37.118.The UCA International User Group discusses and supports real world
experience of the standards used in smart grids.
A utility task group within LonMark International deals with smart grid related issues.
There is a growing trend towards the use of TCP/IP technology as a common communication
platform for smart meter applications, so that utilities can deploy multiple communication
systems, while using IP technology as a common management platform.IEEE P2030 is an IEEE
project developing a “Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology
and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use
Applications and Loads”.NIST has included ITU-T G.hn as one of the “Standards Identified
for Implementation” for the Smart Grid “for which it believed there
was strong stakeholder consensus”. G.hn is standard for high-speed communications over
power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables. OASIS EnergyInterop’ – An OASIS technical
committee developing XML standards for energy interoperation. Its starting point is the
California OpenADR standard. Under the Energy Independence and Security
Act of 2007 (EISA), NIST is charged with overseeing the identification and selection of hundreds
of standards that will be required to implement the Smart Grid in the U.S. These standards
will be referred by NIST to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This work has
begun, and the first standards have already been selected for inclusion in NIST’s Smart
Grid catalog. However, some commentators have suggested that the benefits that could be
realized from Smart Grid standardization could be threatened by a growing number of patents
that cover Smart Grid architecture and technologies. If patents that cover standardized Smart Grid
elements are not revealed until technology is broadly distributed throughout the network
(“locked-in”), significant disruption could occur when patent holders seek to collect
unanticipated rents from large segments of the market.==GridWise Alliance rankings==
In November 2017 the non-profit GridWise Alliance along with Clean Edge Inc., a clean energy
group, released rankings for all 50 states in their efforts to modernize the electric
grid. California was ranked number one. The other top states were Illinois, Texas, Maryland,
Oregon, Arizona, the District of Columbia, New York, Nevada and Delaware. “The 30-plus
page report from the GridWise Alliance, which represents stakeholders that design, build
and operate the electric grid, takes a deep dive into grid modernization efforts across
the country and ranks them by state.”==See also

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